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Ecuadorian lichen contains psilocybin, study shows (!) Options
 
null24
#1 Posted : 9/29/2016 2:37:02 AM

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No kidding? The results are in...
psilocybin containing lichen in evolver news.
Sine experientia nihil sufficienter sciri potest -Roger Bacon
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Good quality Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) for an incredible price!
 
endlessness
#2 Posted : 9/29/2016 8:31:32 AM

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Yeah it's definitely very interesting (though this is actually from a year or two ago? ). The issue is that there was only one sample taken, they only did one test and didn't try to reproduce the results, and they did not have any reference standards to make sure their interpreted results were actually valid.... So while it's definitely very interesting, it still warrants more research (which will be hard since there are no more samples and even the hoarani do not really know how to identify it anymore it seems)
 
entheogenic-gnosis
#3 Posted : 9/29/2016 2:09:07 PM
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https://www.dmt-nexus.me...spx?g=posts&t=69615

I've been following this topic for quite sometime...

I was under the impression that only a single collected sample was in existance, and that it took the collected many many years to locate that single sample...


This was a good article on the topic.
Quote:
A new species of lichen has been discovered in the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest, according to a recent paper published in The Bryologist. Researchers led by lead author Michaela Schmull have tentatively identified tryptamine and psilocybin in the lichen, among other potential substances.

The story is a rather unusual one. There is only one known sample of the lichen in all of Western science, and it was collected in 1981 by ethnobotanists Wade Davis and Jim Yost while conducting research in Ecuador. In a 1983 paper describing their discovery of this lichen, Davis and Yost write:

In the spring of 1981, whilst we were engaged in ethnobotanical studies in eastern Ecuador, our attention was drawn to a most peculiar use of hallucinogens by the Waorani, a small isolated group of some 600 Indians. … Amongst most Amazonian tribes, hallucinogenic intoxication is considered to be a collective journey into the subconscious and, as such, is a quintessentially social event. … The Waorani, however, consider the use of hallucinogens to be an aggressive anti-social act; so the shaman, or ido, who desires to project a curse takes the drug alone or accompanied only by his wife at night in the secrecy of the forest or in an isolated house. …

Of particular botanical interest is the fact that this peculiar cultural practise involves hallucinogenic plants, one rarely used and one until now unreported. The Waorani have two hallucinogens: Banisteriopsisniun muricata and an as yet undescribed basidiolichen of the genus Dictyonema. The former is morphologically very similar to other commonly used … species such as ayahuasca, Banisieriopsis Caapi … On the other hand, no basidiolichen has yet been reported to be employed as a hallucinogen. [emphasis mine]

In that paper, Davis and Yost described the new lichen species as “extremely rare.” So rare, in fact, that Yost had “heard references to it for over seven years before encountering it in the forest.” Imagine being an explorer, dedicating your life to studying the people and plants of far-flung regions, and finally discovering an elusive psychedelic lichen you’ve been hearing about for seven years.

Even the indigenous Waorani people did not have specimens of the lichen, which they call nɇnɇndapɇ, on hand. Natives told the researchers that its last known shamanic use was “some four generations ago — approximately eighty years — when ‘bad shaman ate it to send a curse to cause other Waorani to die.'” Wade Davis and Jim Yost became the first known Westerners to encounter nɇnɇndapɇ, and preserved the specimen for future analysis.

Fast forward 33 years. In 2014, Michaela Schmull and her colleagues analyzed the sample’s DNA and determined that it was a new species, which they named Dictyonema huaorani. (Huaorani is an alternate spelling of Waorani, the original ‘discoverers’ of this species.) Schmull’s team examined an extract of the lichen using liquid chromatography-mass spectometry (LC-MS) techniques, and identified tryptamine, psilocybin, and 5-MeO-DMT, as well as 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT), 5-MeO-NMT, and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT).

It is important to note that without reference compounds — in other words, available samples of the chemicals in question — these results are suggestive rather than conclusive. Since compounds like 5-MeO-DMT have never been observed in a fungus or lichen before, it’s unlikely that all of these identifications are correct. And although fungi are well known for producing psilocybin, the family to which this fungal lichen belongs — Hygrophoraceae — has no other known psilocybin-producing species. Of all the mentioned compounds, the researchers speculate that their identification of tryptamine and psilocybin are most likely to be correct.

https://www.anoniem.org/...en-dictyonema-huaorani/


-eg
 
entheogenic-gnosis
#4 Posted : 9/29/2016 2:10:52 PM
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Quote:
Davis and Yost described the new lichen species as “extremely rare.” So rare, in fact, that Yost had “heard references to it for over seven years before encountering it in the forest.” Imagine being an explorer, dedicating your life to studying the people and plants of far-flung regions, and finally discovering an elusive psychedelic lichen you’ve been hearing about for seven years.

Even the indigenous Waorani people did not have specimens of the lichen, which they call nɇnɇndapɇ, on hand. Natives told the researchers that its last known shamanic use was “some four generations ago — approximately eighty years — when ‘bad shaman ate it to send a curse to cause other Waorani to die.'” Wade Davis and Jim Yost became the first known Westerners to encounter nɇnɇndapɇ, and preserved the specimen for future analysis. -psychedelicfrontier


-eg
 
null24
#5 Posted : 9/29/2016 3:50:05 PM

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endlessness wrote:
Yeah it's definitely very interesting (though this is actually from a year or two ago? ). The issue is that there was only one sample taken, they only did one test and didn't try to reproduce the results, and they did not have any reference standards to make sure their interpreted results were actually valid.... So while it's definitely very interesting, it still warrants more research (which will be hard since there are no more samples and even the hoarani do not really know how to identify it anymore it seems)

I guess I kinda jumped the gun with that headline. I thought this did reproduce the earlier findings. I should thoroughly read things before i post them, i know, this was just very interesting and i had very little time at the wifi.Wink
Sine experientia nihil sufficienter sciri potest -Roger Bacon
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Bancopuma
#6 Posted : 9/29/2016 6:35:12 PM

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Link to study:

Schmull, M., Dal-Forno, M., Lücking, R., Cao, S., Clardy, J., & Lawrey, J.D. (2014) Dictyonema huaorani (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), a new lichenized basidiomycete from Amazonian Ecuador with presumed hallucinogenic properties. The Bryologist, 117, (4), 386-394.

http://www.bioone.org/do...639/0007-2745-117.4.386

Abstract

Dictyonema huaorani, a new species represented by a well-developed specimen found in the Ecuadorian Amazon region, is described in this paper. The material was collected during a Harvard ethnobotanical expedition in 1981 and originally determined by Mason E. Hale Jr. as belonging in the genus Dictyonema (D. sericeum s.lat.) and possibly representing an undescribed species. The species is morphologically distinctive in forming densely woven, semicircular thalli, closely resembling those of the paleotropical D. ligulatum but lacking clamps and with hyphal sheath around the photobiont filaments that resembles those of Cyphellostereum species. The species was reported to have hallucinogenic properties and chemical analyses suggest certain substances present that are shared with the hallucinogenic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis. Due to our inability to use pure reference compounds and scarce amount of sample for compound identification, however, our analyses were not able to determine conclusively the presence of hallucinogenic substances.
 
 
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