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Psychoactive African Plants pdf Options
 
nen888
#1 Posted : 1/24/2014 3:23:53 AM
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A preliminary inventory of plants used for psychoactive purposes in southern African healing traditions
J.F. SOBIECKI
Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, Rand Afrikaans University, 2006

a very interesting and comprehensive paper,

attached for members below
 

STS is a community for people interested in growing, preserving and researching botanical species, particularly those with remarkable therapeutic and/or psychoactive properties.
 
Endurance
#2 Posted : 1/24/2014 5:56:44 AM

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Thanks nen888, J.F. SOBIECKI has been doing great work in South Africa for a while now... For anyone interested in the ethnobotany of southern Africa be sure to have a look at other articles of his.

nen888, I've attached a paper on monoamine oxidase inhibition by southern African traditional medicinal plants that might also be of interest.

Stafford, G.I., Pedersen, P.D., Jager, A.K. & Van Staden, J. 2007. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by southern African traditional medicinal plants. South African Journal of Botany 73: 384-390
 
Ufostrahlen
#3 Posted : 1/24/2014 10:53:55 AM

xͭ͆͝͏̮͔̜t̟̬̦̣̟͉͈̞̝ͣͫ͞,̡̼̭̘̙̜ͧ̆̀̔ͮ́ͯͯt̢̘̬͓͕̬́ͪ̽́s̢̜̠̬̘͖̠͕ͫ͗̾͋͒̃͛̚͞ͅ


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nen888
#4 Posted : 1/24/2014 12:02:35 PM
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thank you indigo breeze,
and thank you Ufostrahlen..some great reading..

now a trip to South Africa seems in order..Smile

will post any more African ethnobotanic papers i come across here..
 
jamie
#5 Posted : 1/25/2014 12:32:03 AM

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this is great stuff nen thanks!
 
xantho
#6 Posted : 1/25/2014 2:23:01 PM

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I had the great pleasure of meeting Jean-Francois and hearing him speak on the topic of psychoactive plants and ubulawus at the Khanyisa Psychoactive Plant Conference in October. He is doing incredible work and I'm very happy to see his publications appearing here.

Thanks for sharing nen and I hope you're keeping well my brother. Please do come and visit! Hopefully the conference will run again this year and you can come give a presentation Pleased We'd be honoured to have you.

"Becoming a person of the plants is not a learning process, it is a remembering process. Somewhere in our ancestral line, there was someone that lived deeply connected to the Earth, the Elements, the Sun, Moon and Stars. That ancestor lives inside our DNA, dormant, unexpressed, waiting to be remembered and brought back to life to show us the true nature of our indigenous soul" - Sajah Popham.
 
nen888
#7 Posted : 1/25/2014 11:52:19 PM
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^..nice to hear from you xantho, and would love to come visit..Smile and talking would be great..
actually i was going to bump your acacia cultivation thread to see how they were going...
hope you keeping well too..
 
Arczilla
#8 Posted : 1/30/2014 9:11:31 AM

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xantho wrote:
I had the great pleasure of meeting Jean-Francois and hearing him speak on the topic of psychoactive plants and ubulawus at the Khanyisa Psychoactive Plant Conference in October. He is doing incredible work and I'm very happy to see his publications appearing here.

Thanks for sharing nen and I hope you're keeping well my brother. Please do come and visit! Hopefully the conference will run again this year and you can come give a presentation Pleased We'd be honoured to have you.


Greetz Xantho,
I missed the conference due to out of country business but Im hoping to make the next one! Can you give me a little bit of info regarding the proceedings of last years conference? what was covered?

I am hoping that you could help me out with a few questions regarding Acacias here in JHB? and Locally? I am really having difficulties with this, I was refered to erowid by Jean-Francois but did not find much there.

Thanks!
Arc


“We need to interact with like-minded people throughout the world to establish the new intellectual order which will be the salvation of mankind.”
– Terence McKenna
 
nen888
#9 Posted : 1/30/2014 11:48:10 AM
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Arczilla
#10 Posted : 1/30/2014 12:18:12 PM

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Thanks alot!! I really appreciate it. I will get to it immediately.

Greetz
Arc
“We need to interact with like-minded people throughout the world to establish the new intellectual order which will be the salvation of mankind.”
– Terence McKenna
 
Arczilla
#11 Posted : 1/30/2014 12:41:22 PM

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Thanks! The above thread only has 11 posts Last dated 21/12/2012. unfortunaltely I cannot comment, reply or post there due to me being a beginner.
I would love to know what they loo like today!
“We need to interact with like-minded people throughout the world to establish the new intellectual order which will be the salvation of mankind.”
– Terence McKenna
 
Arczilla
#12 Posted : 1/30/2014 1:26:26 PM

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I am on page 11 now of the above thread and WOW... Just WOW everything I need is there. I have to say MASSIVE RESPECT to every user that added to that Thread, I hope that one day I can contribute to this awesome thread!!!

Arc
“We need to interact with like-minded people throughout the world to establish the new intellectual order which will be the salvation of mankind.”
– Terence McKenna
 
adam
#13 Posted : 1/30/2014 6:49:39 PM

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Thank you nen. Good stuff as always.
 
xantho
#14 Posted : 2/5/2014 6:56:39 PM

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Arczilla wrote:
Greetz Xantho,
I missed the conference due to out of country business but Im hoping to make the next one! Can you give me a little bit of info regarding the proceedings of last years conference? what was covered?

I am hoping that you could help me out with a few questions regarding Acacias here in JHB? and Locally? I am really having difficulties with this, I was refered to erowid by Jean-Francois but did not find much there.

Thanks!
Arc


Hey Arczilla,

Sorry for the delayed response. In terms of the conference, here is a list of the talks (bearing in mind that there were one or two hitches and changes along the way): Julian Palmer: "Healing the Western Psyche with Psychoactive Plants"; Dr Luis Eduardo Luna: "Shamanism, Altered States of Consciousness, Sacred Plants and the Spirit World" Part 1; Kwesukela Storytelling Academy: "Umahlaletsheni - The name of the healer. A Story about the Umganu Tree that heals"; Iboga Panel Discussion; Jean Francois Sobiecki: "The Role of Psychoactive Plants in South African Traditional Medicine and Healing"; Julian Stobbs & Myrtle Clarke aka "The Dagga Couple": "Ordinary Criminals: A Philosophical look at 120 years of Cannabis Prohibition in South Africa"; Dale Millard: "Unique Ethnobotanical Observations from South Africa and Indonesia"; Monica Cromhout: "Sacred Mushrooms: Their Music and Their Tribe"; Graham Hancock: "Altered States, Good and Evil, Parallel Realms and the Human Future"; Dr Luis Eduardo Luna: "Shamanism, Altered States of Consciousness, Sacred Plants and the Spirit World" Part 2; Simon Loxton: "New Pathways to Ibogaine"; Sinegugu Zukulu: "Traditional Usage of the Magical Plants of Pondoland"; Thabo Mkulu: "Bringing Together Plants and People"; Dan Schreiber: "Spice Mantis Dreaming: A new Dreamtime and The Future of Plant/Human relations" (my favourite talk); Mike Kawitzky: "A Zeitgeist Accelerator - The Cyberspace Evolution of the Psychoactive Mind; Graham Hancock: "Magicians of the Gods"; Kilindi Iyi: "Africa, Transhumanism and the Magic Mushroom".

Regarding Acacias in your area, I'm really no expert and the truth is that most of the work is still to be done (and can be done by 'amateurs' such as you and I). Erowid is not very helpful in this regard. My suggestion would be to purchase a good Acacia fieldguide for South Africa, read the thread nen started and linked, consult other online sources, then get out and get to know the trees in person. Things should flow from there. You're welcome to PM me if you ever have any specific questions or things to share.

"Becoming a person of the plants is not a learning process, it is a remembering process. Somewhere in our ancestral line, there was someone that lived deeply connected to the Earth, the Elements, the Sun, Moon and Stars. That ancestor lives inside our DNA, dormant, unexpressed, waiting to be remembered and brought back to life to show us the true nature of our indigenous soul" - Sajah Popham.
 
Endurance
#15 Posted : 2/10/2014 7:33:49 AM

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.. Attached, a recent paper on Boophone disticha

Nair, J.J. & Van Staden, J. 2014. Traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the South African medicinal plant Boophone disticha (L.f.) Herb.(Amaryllidaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151: 12-26

..agreed Xantho, definitely think Nen should come pay us a visit... Possibly a speaker at the next Khanyisa Psychoactive Plant Conference? Big grin
 
PrimalWisdom
#16 Posted : 2/11/2014 7:42:09 AM

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Awesome papers folks!

Thanks nen888 and Indigo Smile

Being trying to fill up my garden with as many special plants as I could, as well as build up a nice collection of traditional African and Southern African entheo's, sure this will be invaluable.

Just spent the weekend in The Karoo (Semi-arid/semi-desert region of S. Africa) there are so many different plants and succulents that deserve closer inspection. Once I have finished potting the 6 awesome new cacti I found Smile I'm going to go through the pics of the plants I found and see what I find.

Peace

Sonorous fractal manifestastions,
birthing golden vibrations,
that echo through folds of space & time,
ferry my soul closer to God

 
Pharmacognosis
#17 Posted : 2/11/2014 8:20:58 AM

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That Sobiecki inventory paper is a goldmine, I've already been entertained for for three hours plugging in species to search engines for sourcing for bioassay. A number of these are available in ornamental plant and succulent circles for collectors. One species in particular is easily found at Lowe's or elsewhere which bears testing, Anacampseros. These are reputed to be narcotic and used in beer making (a lot of ethnobotanical beer additives have their own sedative properties and used as potentiators). For something so common you'd think there would be a bioassay on the net but it is unexplored so far.

When looking these species up I found this catalog reposted in two forums, the headers were edited so I can't find where it originally came from, but it contains valuable and obscure specifics on African ethnobotanicals I could not find elsewhere. If anyone recognizes the source please share.

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

http://www.plantasenteog...;p=56179&viewfull=1

Abrus precatorius :
Root or leaf decoctions are taken for pain in the chest and also as love charms.
Seeds are carried as lucky charms.
Roots are used as an aphrodisiac in East Africa.
Roots are also used as sedatives and restoratives in African medicine.
Known compounds include indole derivatives N-methyltryptamine and N-methyltryptophan.
A necklaces of the seeds is worn around the neck as a love charm.
The black spot on the seed suggests the pupil of the eye, and they are therefore an ingredient in charms to ensure invisibility.
In Ashanti they are an ingredient in the brass pan used in the ceremonies connected with making a new shrine.
The seeds and roots are poisonous.



Acacia abyssinica

Albizia anthelmintica
Cissus quadrangularis
There is a complex of stimulants cooked with food and eaten by Maasai warriors to attain courage, bravery and endurance. This includes : Acacia spp. (A. nilotica, A seyal bark & A. abyssinica roots), Albizia anthelmintica bark, Cissus quandrangularis, Maesa lanceolata fruit and/or roots, Pappea capensis bark and others. LEHMANN & MIHALYI 1982.

Acacia caffra :
Love charm emetics are made from the roots.
[A quick note about love charm emetics (of which there are several species used for this purpose) - It is possible that steroidal saponins, which are known to be present in many of the plants used by traditional healers, do affect the sex hormones.]

Acacia elephantorrhiza :
Family : Mimosa.
It is an ubulawu plant used by the Zulu’s. Ubulawu is a term for plants that cause visionary and prophetic dreams, and allows one to connect with and receive messages from the ancestors and spiritual world.
It has a huge corky textured underground caudex and masses of yellow fragrant mimosa-like pale yellow flowers in spring before the leaves are fully developed.
The root is used by the Shona from Zimbabwe as an aphrodisiac.

Acacia karroo :
In Zimbabwe, roots are used for general body pains, and as aphrodisiacs.
Bark decoctions are taken as emetics for ailments believed to be caused by sorcery.

Acacia nigrescens :
Bark to treat fatigue.

Acacia polyacantha subsp. campylacantha :
Has magical properties.


Acacia polycantha ssp. polycantha :
The leaf has tested positive for tryptamines according to at least one scientific study.

Acacia robusta :
Bark is used to increase stamina.
Bark is also used for magical purposes.
Ground bark, mixed with water, is reported to dispatch snakes.

Acacia sieberiana :
The leaf has tested positive for tryptamines according to at least one scientific study.
Another researcher suspects that the roots contain methylated-tryptamines.

Acacia tortilis :
The leaves and pods, which are browsed by stock and game, are very nutritious.
The bark is eaten by elephants, and is also used medicinally by the locals.
Suspected of containing tryptamines by one researcher.

Acacia species :
We have many African Acacia species available, including Acacia ataxacantha, a. mellifera, a. nilotica, a. xanthophloea, etc.

Acrolophia cochlearis :
Root infusions are taken as love charm emetics.
Infusion from roots used by young men when courting.

Adenia gummifera :
Infusions made from a small piece of root are administered as emetic tonics or stimulants for seediness or depression.
Sprinkling protective charms are made from the plant.
Unspecified parts of the plant are used to treat sharp pains in the chest.

Adiantum capillus-veneris :

The Sutos smoke the leaf for head and chest colds.
Medicine made from the plant has detoxifying effects in alcoholism; the plant is used to detoxify those who abuse alcohol.

Afzelia quanzensis :
In East Africa, roots are used as aphrodisiacs.
Bark infusions are used as body washes by Chewa chiefs in Malawi.
Bark is used as a lucky charm in Zimbabwe.

Agapanthus africanus :
Root infusions are taken as love charm emetics.
Sitosterol, yuccagenin and agapanthagenin and the steroid spirostan sapogenins, 7-8 and 9-dehydroagapanthagenin have been isolated from the rhizomes.

Agapanthus campanulatus :
Unspecified parts are used with Myosotis sylvatica in the initiation of traditional healers, to develop their memory and make initiates mentally fit for their work.

Agapanthus praecox :
Used as an aphrodisiac.

Agathosma betulina :
Buchu has stimulant effects and is also used in weight-loss products.

Albizia amara subsp. sericocephala :
The root is used as an aphrodisiac.

Albizia anthelmintica :
In East Africa, women use the root as a sexual stimulant (aphrodisiac).

Albizia antunesiana :
The Shona from Zimbabwe use the bark & root as a sexual stimulant (aphrodisiac).

Albizia forbesii :
Roots are used, with roots of an Acacia species and a small piece of Spirostachys africana root, in medicines used to get rid of `utokoloshi’ (a mischievous sprite often associated with witches and usually associated with water).

Albizia versicolor :
The roots and bark of the tree are used to make a medicine for driving out demons.

Albuca fastigiata :
Used as a protective charm.

Albuca nelsonii :
Infusions are taken as emetics against sorcery.
Bulb infusions are also sprinkled in yards as protective charms.

Albuca setosa :
Used in ritual cleansing.

Alepidea natalensis & thodei :
The dry rhizome and roots of Alepidea amatymbica are smoked, or powdered and taken as snuff by diviners and healers to assist in divination and communication with the ancestors. Smoking the roots results in sedation and vivid dreams.
The roots are also used as a smoking admixture, and the smoke disguises the smell of whatever it is that is being smoked in conjunction with this admixture.
Elderly people powder the dry rhizome and take it as a snuff. The rhizome is carried as a lucky charm, and divining bones are ritually washed with Alepidea rhizomes.
Alepidea is also used for self-fortification and to ward off evil spirits.

Aloe barberae :
Snuff & roots for toothache

Aloe chabaudii :
Leaves used for snuff.

Aloe chortolirioides :
Snuff.

Aloe cryptopoda :
Snuff & roots for toothache. Antibiotic.

Aloe ferox :

Xhosa children are fond of sucking the sweet juice out of the flowers, and if this is done to any extent, it is said to produce a persistent weakness of the joints. The nectar juice is said to be narcotic.
One of the essential ingredients in the medicine horn of a Basutu witchdoctor.

Aloe kraussii :
A lotion made from the plant is used in the initiation rites of young Suto girls.

Aloe maculata :
Used as an emetic when narcotic substances have been absorbed, or from discomfort from too much food or alcohol.
Extracts show inhibitory effects on histamine release from mast cells, indicating potential anti-inflammatory usefulness. Antifungal effects have been observed from protein extracts. Lectins isolated from the gel portions of the leaves showed haemagglutinating activity on human blood cells.

Aloe marlothii :
Leaves for snuff, stomach cramps & antibiotic. Roots & leaves for toothache & roundworm.

Aloe parvibracteata :
Snuff & roots for toothache

Aloe rupestris :
Snuff & roots for toothache

Aloe spicata :
Snuff & roots for toothache.

Aloe suprafoliata :
Snuff & roots for toothache.

Aloe tenuior :
Used as a protective charm.

Allophylus africanus var. africanus :
Magical-medicinal uses.

Anacampseros alstonii :
Is used as a yeast source in traditional beers. Several other Anacampseros species are narcotic, possibly containing mesembrine-type alkaloids.

Anacampseros arachnoides :
Used by herbalists as an emetic.

Anacampseros rhodesica :

Has been used in Rhodesia as an ingredient in beer making. It is also said to have narcotic effects on its own.
Various Anacampseros sp. are used in making traditional beers or intoxicating beverages. Available seeds incl. A. baeseckei, A. densiflora, A. karasmontana, A. telethiastrum.

Anchusa capensis :
Used as a charm to excite the passions.
Mixed with other plants, it is used to purify the blood.

Androcymbium striatum :
Used to treat earache.

Annona senegalensis :
In the Nsanje District of Malawi, Annona senegalensis is used together with three other plants to induce "spirit possession".
Bioactive ent-kaurene diterpenoids have been isolated from the stem-bark of Annona senegalensis; Alepidea also has kaurenes.

Antidesma venosum :
Roots are used in washes to ease body pain.
Leaf, twig and root decoctions are taken for abdominal pain in East Africa.
Leaves are reported to contain an alkaloid.

Apodytes dimidata :
Bark is used to ward off evil spirits.

Aptenia cordifolia :
Used as a love charm and as protection against sorcery.

Arctopus echinatus :
The roots have potent sedative properties.

Argyrolobium tomentosum :

Root infusions are taken by diviners to sharpen their vision.
Used by sangomas/diviners to sharpen their divining powers.
The root is also used by the Zulu’s to facilitate divination.

Aristea abyssinica :
Used as a protective charm.

Aristea ecklonii :
Used as a protective charm.

Aristea woodii :
Used as a protective and good luck charm.

Artemisia afra :
Leaf infusions are taken as teas.
Thujone is found in the aerial parts.
Narcotic analgesic effects have been indicated in preliminary pharmaceutical tests.
The Sutos make a lotion from the plant for washing the body.

Asclepias fruticosa :
A snuff made from the powdered leaf is sedative.

Aspalathus linearis :
Rooibos is a traditional beverage of the Khoi of Southern Africa.
It is now cultivated commercially and is a popular health beverage which contains no harmful stimulants or caffeine.

Asparagus falcatus :
Root is antibiotic, aphrodisiac, nerve tonic & antispasmodic.


Asparagus laricinus :
Used in love charms.

Asparagus microraphis :
Parts of the plant are placed in incisions on the bodies of young girl initiates, to strengthen them.

Asparagus racemosus :
Root is antibiotic, aphrodisiac, nerve tonic & antispasmodic.

Asparagus setaceus :
Used in love charms.

Asparagus virgatus :
This plant is thought to have magical properties.
When unwanted rain threatens, a plant is cut and set alight. The youngest child in the family waves this around to chase the rain away.
Also used as a protective charm.

Asystasia gangetica :
In Togo it is a magic medicine to make young children fearless.

Athrixia elata :
The Chuanas use a decoction of this herb as a stimulant.

Avonia ustulata :
(Avonia previously known as Anacampseros).
The dried and pulverized roots and stems are used to brew mead (honey beer).
This plant may contain psychoactive substances, so that its’ use may not only have been as yeast, but to improve the `kick’ of the brew.



Balanites maughamii :
Roots and bark are ingredients in infusions used by traditional healers in protective rituals against evil spirits.
Bark is used to make an exhilarating & stimulating bath.
The roots are pounded and made into a medicine for driving out demons.
Ballota africana :
This famous Khoi remedy is used as an infusion or tincture for a wide variety of ailments, including stress.

Bauhinia galpinii :
Ancestor communication.

Bauhinia petersiana :
The seeds are roasted as a coffee substitute.

Begonia sutherlandii :
Powdered plant parts are used as charms to detect threats.
Used as a protective charm.

Behnia reticulata :
The roots are used to make `ubulawu’.
The roots are ingredients in infusions taken as love charm emetics.
Used in love potions.
Branches and fruit are worn as a protective dancing charm by Xhosa traditional healers.

Berchemia discolor :
This is a medium-sized to large tree of low-altitude bushveld. It is evergreen or deciduous and the leaves are shiny and dark green, with raised veins on the lower side. The tree has a wide distribution. The fruits are rich in vitamin C, are delicious to eat, and are used to make beer.

Berkheya setifera :
Repels evil spirits.

Bolusanthus speciosus :
There is a substance in the roots which is reputed to have a sleep-inducing effect.

Bowiea volubilis :
Used as a love charm.

Brachylaena discolor :

Roots and stems are used by izangoma (diviners) to communicate with their ancestors.
A leaf infusion is used as a tonic.
Onopordopicrin has been isolated from aerial parts (Zdero and Bohlmann, 1987).
The early Dutch settlers made alkali for soap-making from the ashes of the plant.

Buchnera simplex :
Used as a love charm emetic.

Burchellia bubaline :
Roots are sometimes ingredients in love charm emetics and also in body washes.
Cold water infusions of pounded roots are taken as emetics against bad dreams.



Calodendron capense :
The seed-kernel yields a fixed oil which is suitable for soap-making, but is not edible on account of its bitterness.

Canthium ciliatum :
Roots are used by traditional healers as a substitute for Turraea floribunda to induce trance states before divining dances.
The Sotho traditionally administer bark and leaf infusions as enemas for pain believed to be caused by beetles present in the abdomen as a result of sorcery.
Plants are also used as protective charms in graves to prevent disturbances of newly interred bodies.

Cardiospermum grandiflorum :
Sedative properties.

Cardiospermum halicacabum :
Sedative properties.

Cassia abbreviata subsp. Beareana :
Various parts used as aphrodisiac & remedy for stomach aches.
Has magical properties.

Cassytha filiformis :
Its uses are supposed to be known only to sorcerers.

Catha edulis :
Chat is believed to have 501 different kinds of cures equaling the numerical value of the letters of its Arabic name, Ga-a-t (400 + 100 + 1).
The root is used in some parts of Africa as a remedy for influenza, for stomach troubles and diseases of the chest.
The leaf has a euphoric and stimulatory effect which produces a marked release from fatigue and hunger.

Carissa bispinosa :
Unspecified parts are reputed to have aphrodisiac properties.

Carpobrotus edulis :
The presence of mesembrine is reported in this species.

Celtis africana :
Wood is used for protective magical purposes in various areas of southern Africa.

Chironia baccifera :
Reported to produce sleepiness.
Used as a blood purifier.

Chlorophytum modestum :
Used as a protective charm.

Chrysanthemoides monilifera :
Small frequent doses of juice from the fruit are reported to be administered by the Zulu, Xhosa or Sotho as blood strengtheners and purifiers to men suffering from impotence.
In Lesotho, leafy branches are burned as a cure in the huts of mad men.
The ashes contain an alkali from which soap has been made.
Cissampelos torulosa :
Leaf decoctions are traditionally administered as enemas for hallucinations.
Whole plants are used for ritual purification by the Vhavenda.

Clematis brachiata :
Used to drive away evil spirits by the Sotho.
Is a ritual medicine for the Dorobo.
Powdered roots are used as a snuff for headaches in Zimbabwe.
Smoke from burning leaves is inhaled for blood problems in Botswana.
The leaves are also snuffed.
Used as a good luck charm.

Clerodendrum glabrum :
A weak tea is taken at night by the Tswana to aid sleep and to prevent bad dreams. Pounded leaves, placed in the armpit and neck, are used to induce sleep and to provide a remedy for convulsions in children by the Lobedu.
Leaves are also used to return the effects of witchcraft and their smell is believed to repel witches’ familiars.
In Zimbabwe, leaves are traditionally used to drive away evil spirits.

Coddia rudis :
Pounded root decoctions are used for impotence.

Combretum molle :
Roots are used as an aphrodisiac, for weakness, backache, and stomach pains.

Commiphora africana :
Has magical uses.
Resins are used in West Africa as insecticides and termite repellents.

Conostomium natalense :
Roots are used for magical purposes and as love charms by the Vhavenda.
A love potion is made from the leaves.

Corycium nigrescens :
Infusion from roots used to ward off evil.

Crassula alba :
Used as a charm to make one invisible.

Crassula setulosa :
Mixed with tobacco to improve it.

Crassula vaginata :
Used as a love charm emetic, and a protective charm.
Used to treat earache.

Curtisia dentata :
Bark is used as an aphrodisiac and as a blood strengthener.
The bark is also used as a love charm to make a man attractive.
A red colored bark used for magical purposes. The magical use is kept very secret.

Cussonia spicata :
Bark is used for magical purposes.
Rootbark decoctions are administered for mental illness.
Two saponins have been isolated from the stem-bark.

Cyanotis speciosa :
Used as love and protective charms.

Cyathea dregei :
Used to ward off evil spirits.

Cyclopia intermedia - Honeybush :
This uniquely South African Herbal drink is used as a substitute for tea and as a health drink due to the lack of caffeine and other harmful substances in it. Honeybush contains no toxins, and has a positive effect on one's physiology.


Cycnium racemosum :
The Zulus drink an infusion of the root as an analgesic for general pains in the body.
Cyrtanthus breviflorus :
Bulb infusions are taken as love charm emetics, and are also used as protection against evil.

Cyrtanthus mackenii :
Used as a protective charm.



Positive general alkaloid tests in the AIZOACEAE (Probable ID of mesembrine) :

Drosanthemum hispidum
Drosanthemum floribundum
Glottiphyllum longum
Lampranthus scaber
Oscularia caulescens
Oscularia deltoids
Ruschia multiflorum
Ruschia rubricaulis
Ruschia tumidula



Delosperma ashtonii :
Is made into a snuff by the Sotho.
Various Delosperma's have been analyzed and contain various types of tryptamines and other molecules.
Could this traditional Sotho snuff have visionary effects?

Delosperma mahonii :
The roots are used by the Bantu for making an intoxicating beer.

Desmodium repandum


Dianthus mooiensis :
A cold water root infusion is used by diviners to ensure visions and sharpen their divining faculties.


Dicoma anomala :
The Wembas snuff the powdered root-bark for cold in the nose.
Tubers are used for analgesic effects.
The Manyika use powdered roots, taken in hot milk, to make the voice high and clear.

Dicoma zeyheri :
Used as a blood strengthener to mothers after a long, difficult birth.

Dioscorea dregeana :
Some tribes use a cold infusion in teaspoonful doses as a soporific. If eaten raw or parboiled it produces narcosis. Two teaspoonfuls of fresh macerate from the tuber are reputed to make a person drunk; hence the name `isidakwa’, literally `the drunkard’.
In famine times, the Pondos eat the tubers, but soak them in running water for several days previously; if insufficiently soaked, a condition akin to drunkenness follows ingestion.
Maize cobs boiled in strong tuber decoctions are used to inebriate monkeys so that they can be easily caught.
Tubers are used for hysterical fits and to cure insanity.
Rhizomes are a sedative for hysteria & epilepsy.
Poisonous.
All information is provided for historical purposes only.

Diospyros whyteana :
Bark for impotence & infertility.

Disa versicolor :
Infusions from plants are used for charms against evil.

Dissotis canescens :
Medicinal. Roots for dysentery, hangovers & heartburn.

Dodonea angustifolia :

The leaves are used for analgesic effects by traditional healers from Polokwane, South Africa.




Dombeya rotundifolia :
In West Africa, roots are used in rituals.
Root decoctions are rubbed on the body to dispel the effects of witchcraft in eastern Tanzania.
Inner bark is used for weakness of the heart.
In Zambia, roots and bark are used as tonics.
Roots are used for abdominal pains in Tanzania.

Drimia altissima :
Used for magical-medicinal purposes.

Drimia elata :
Used for pain relief, and as a protective charm.



Ehretia obtusifolia :
In Botswana, decoctions from roots and stems are used as analgesics for general internal body pain.

Ehretia rigida :
The Manyika use powdered roots, rubbed into scarifications, for acute pain in the chest and abdominal areas.
Unspecified parts are used in rain-making ceremonies in Botswana.

Ekebergia capensis :
Bark is traditionally used to protect chiefs against witchcraft.
Bark is also taken in love charm emetics.
Bark is also used to treat exhaustion, listlessness, and to ward off evil.

Entada rheedii :
Tobacco smoked in a pipe made from the seed causes vivid dreaming.
The large bean-like seeds are carried or worn on necklaces and pendants as lucky charms.

Eragrostis capensis :
Used by Basutu witchdoctors as a candle to discover and counteract spells.


Eriosema cordatum :
Used to treat impotence.

Erythroxylum delagoense :
Family – Erythroxylaceae.
`Small leaved coco tree’.

Euclea crispa :
Is used in divination in Lesotho.
Used to wash divining bones to give them accuracy.

Euclea divinorum `Magic Guarri' :
Is used in divination.

Euclea natalensis :
The root is hypnotic.

Eucomis autumnalis :
Bulb decoctions are used for hangovers by the Tswana and Sotho.
Also used as a protective charm.

Eulophia clavicornis :
The peeled stock or tuber is crushed to powder along with young squash plants, to provide a charm giving witchdoctors the advantage in sorcery.
Infusions from tubers are used as protection from evil.

Eulophia petersii :
Used as a love charm.

Eulophia streptopetala :
Taken as love charm emetics.
Also sometimes used as part of protective sprinkling medicines known as `intelezi’.

Eulophia welwitschii :
An infusion of the tuber is used by young men when courting.




Ficus sur :
The latex is used for general body pain.
Fresh young aerial roots and inner bark are chewed with kola nuts for the alleviation of thirst.
Unspecified parts are used as aphrodisiacs.
The tree is widely used as a protective charm and grown in sacred shrines in East Africa.

Fluggea virosa :
The root is used in Rhodesia as an aphrodisiac.
In Western Ashanti the whole plant is boiled to form a lotion supposed to impart strength.



Gardenia volkensii :
Roots are commonly used as a protective charm against evil spirits.
Roots are used for madness in Zimbabwe.
Twigs are burned as protective charms against sorcery.

Gazania krebsiana :
The plant crushed and mixed with water is used as a cure for earache.

Geranium incanum :
Is a South African tea substitute.
Used to make a `tisane’ or herbal tea in Lesotho.
Used when the divining bones are being worked.

Gerbera piloselloides :
Helps a fortune teller get their way very fast.
Used to make ubulawu.
Used to treat earache and headaches.
Also used as a tonic.

Gladiolus dalenii :
Corm infusions are taken as love charm emetics.
Smoke from the burning corm is inhaled for colds by the Sotho.
Saponin has been found in the corm.
Used as a good luck charm, and in the medicine horns of nyangas.
Gladiolus papilio :
Used as a lucky charm.

Gladiolus sericeo-villosus :
Used in southern Africa for impotency.

Gloriosa superba :
Rhizomes for skin problems, impotence & fertility but poisonous.

Gloriosa virescens :
The Zulus drink the powdered root for the treatment of impotency and barrenness. The root is said by an old journal entry to be very poisonous.

Glottiphyllum cruciatum

Glottiphyllum linguiforme :
The roots are used by the Bantu for making an intoxicating beer.

Glottiphyllum longum :
Reported to contain mesembrine alkaloids.

Gnidia capitata :
"Muti" to make people agree.
Used as a divining torch to discover thieves.

Gomphocarpus fruticosus :
Is snuffed to bring back ancestors.

Gomphostigma virgatum :
An infusion of the plant is used to restore strength to a very tired person.

Gossypium anomalum & herbaceum ssp africanum :
Souleymane draws the attention to the plant of cotton (Gossypium sp., Malvaceae family) as a "first class regulator of the central nervous system (..) it is said to be an ideal mild drug (..) It gives a peaceful euphoria, a calm and light elation". The roots are thought to be the more active part of the plant.
The root is reputedly used to procure abortion. The active principle resides in the root-bark.
Grewia bicolor :
The flowers contain farnesol, which is antagonistic to the excitant effects of caffeine and potentiates the hypnotic effect of barbiturates without being hypnotic itself. It has also been found to have psycho-sedative action.

Grewia flava `Brandy Bush’ :
The Klaarwater Hottentots distill a spirit from the berries.
The Bushmen from Botswana use the fruits to make a beer. Fruit often appears in their folktales.
Khadi (the name of a native drink) appears to involve multiple plants including the fruits of Grewia species. Grewia species have been reported to contain many alkaloids including traces of B-carbolines.
The production of the brew khadi is known to have arisen after the introduction of sugar by the Europeans but there is a distinct possibility that the plants involved reflects a prior ethnomedicinal familiarity to indigenous people. While the primary intoxicant of khadi appears to be alcohol, the complex of plants involved and the potential pharmacological interactions is an area in serious need of in-depth study.


Grewia flavescens :
Multiple medicinal uses. Impotence, sterility, wounds.

Grewia hexamita :
Roots as emetic, for vomiting & as a male aphrodisiac.

Grewia occidentalis :
Pounded bark is used to make soap for washing the head and is believed to prevent hair from going gray if constantly used.

Guibourtia coleosperma :
Copalwood is called `gwi’ by the San bushmen.
Could this be the `gwa' that Trout mentions the root is used (Trout doesn’t know the identity for `gwa’.)
`Gwa’ is used by the !Kung of the Kalahari to help induce `kia'; an altered state of consciousness considered to be a prerequisite for healing practices.

Gunnera perpensa :

Stems and roots are peeled and eaten raw, and also used to make beer.
Root decoctions are taken for male impotence.

Gymnosporia buxifolia :
Magical properties.
Good luck charm.

Gymnospora senegalensis :
The root is used as an aphrodisiac.



Halleria lucida :
The Xhosa traditionally burn twigs when offering sacrifices to the ancestors.
Plant parts are used as protective charms by the Sotho.
The Sutos use the plant as a charm against evil.
With Rhamnus prinoides it protects the village from wizards.

Haplocarpha scaposa :
Is used in divination in Lesotho.
Used by sangomas when consulting the divining bones.
An attractive plant with large rich lemon yellow flowers and prostrate oblong leaves in summer with white velvety undersides.

Harveya speciosa :
A Suto remedy for madness.
It is also used by the Sutos in treating a person who has been bewitched by his relatives.
Used for bruises, nasal problems, dizziness & mental disturbances.

Helichrysum cooperi :
Is used as a wash by young men wishing to attract women.
Used as a love charm.

Helichrysum gymnocomum & H. herbaceum :
Leaves and stems are burned as incense to invoke the goodwill of the ancestors.


Helichrysum odoratissimum :
Essential ingredient for herbalists.
The leaves are burnt to invoke the goodwill of the ancestors.
This same plant is burned by the Xhosa as an incense to invoke the ancestors and as a purification and protective charm.
Is used by the Sutho to fumigate huts and to make a pleasantly perfumed ointment.

Helichrysum rugulosum :
Used as a protective charm in the medicine horn of Basutu witchdoctors.

Helinus integrifolius :
Diviners use saponin rich species like Helinus integrifolius in an ubulawu mix which enables them to interpret dreams clearly.
(Saponins are a highly bioactive group of molecules.)
It is prepared by stirring with cold water until a froth appears.
Also used to treat hysteria and backache.

Hermannia depressa :
Diviners take whole plant decoctions.
The plant is also used to strengthen other medicines.
Also used as a protective charm and a charm against witchcraft.

Heteromorpha arborescens :
The Sutos administer a decoction of the leaf in incipient and early nervous and mental diseases.
They also inhale the smoke from burning the plant to relieve headache.
The plant is stated to be a blood-purifier.

Heteropyxis natalensis :
Used as a medicinal tea.
Bark is used to treat impotence and as an aphrodisiac. It is ground into a powder and licked off the fingers.
The lemon scented Heteropyxis natalensis is also used as a perfume.

Hibiscus cannabinus (Hemp-leaved Hibiscus) :
A substitute for hemp.
Used to make rope and twine.
Peeled stems have uses in medical and occult practices. Also forming an ingredient in prescriptions for anemia, lassitude and fatigue, etc.
Hippobromus pauciflorus :
Root regarded as love-charm.

Hypoxis colchicifolia :
Used to treat impotence, bad dreams, hysterical fits and as a love charm.

Hypoxis hemerocallidea :
Corm infusions are administered as emetics for mental disorders and dizziness.
Ground corm decoctions, administered orally, are also used in Transkei for patients who cannot speak, possibly as a result of shock.
Plant decoctions are given to weakly children as tonics by the Tswana and Kwena.



Ilex mitis :
Used as a charm by witchdoctors to prevent a sick person being bewitched while the divining bones are being thrown.
Diviners use plants in protective rituals to protect patients from sorcery.
Lather from pounded bark and leaves indicates the potential presence of saponins.

Imperata cylindrical :

Used as a restorative for tiredness or weakness.

Indigofera hedyantha :
Used as a good luck charm.

Ipomoea species :
Ipomoea adenioides,
Ipomoea albivenia (used to purify the blood),
Ipomoea caprae,
Ipomoea longituba,
Ipomoea magnusiana,
Ipomoea obscura,
Ipomoea oenotherae,
Ipomoea pes-tigridis,
Ipomoea pres-copre ssp. Brasiliensis.


Jasminum multipartitum :
Roots are sometimes an ingredient in love charm emetics.
Used as a love charm emetic and to make a herb tea, fragrant bath and pot-pourri.

Justicia capensis & Justicia odora :
The root of Justicia flava is chewed for magical purposes in East Africa.
There are 23 Justicia species native to southern Africa.
A South American Justicia is believed to be used as an ayahuasca admixture.



Kalanchoe paniculata :
Used as a love charm.

Kalanchoe thyrsiflora :
Used to treat earache and as a charm.

Khadia acutipetala :
Family : Mesembryanthemaceae
Common name : `Khadi root’.
Also called `moerwortel’ or `moerwortelvygie’.
`Moer’ means yeast and `wortel’ means root; these mesembs were used to enhance the fermentation process of the brewing of traditional beers like honey and sorghum beer.
The fleshy rootstock of this mesemb is an important fermentation agent in beer brewing. Khadi is the original name for a type of beer in which the root is used as a source of yeast. The fermenting ability of khadi root has been ascribed to the presence of fungi. There are possibly mesembrine-type alkaloids in the root, which may contribute to the intoxicating properties. The name `khadi’ has been extended to several other plants with fleshy rootstocks used in a similar way, such as Raphionacme hirsute.

Kigelia africana :
The Ndebele from Zimbabwe and males from Venda eat the fruit...
 
Pharmacognosis
#18 Posted : 2/11/2014 8:39:14 AM

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Last visit: 08-Oct-2016
[continued...]

Kigelia africana :
The Ndebele from Zimbabwe and males from Venda eat the fruit to increase penis size.
Magic and protective powers. Attracts or protects from lightning.
It is used as a charm to ensure riches.
The fruit is used in Gold Coast, painted in various colors, by fetish men in divining the cause of a disease.

Kniphofia ritualis :
Used in traditional medicine to treat pain, also in initiation rites for girls.

Kniphofia sarmentosa :
A decoction is drunk to relieve pain in the shoulders. The plant also enters into the initiation rites of women.

Kohautia amatymbica :
Love charm emetic.
A decoction is given to children who are wasting away, to restore them to health.



Lagenaria sphaerica :
Used to treat stomach ache and in ceremonies after the death of a chief.

Lantana rugosa :
Common name : Bird’s Brandy.
The fruit is reported to be edible but is reputed to have narcotic effects on birds.
The leaf is used as a snuff.
Volatile oil and the alkaloid lantanin are reported in the leaves.

Ledebouria cooperi :
Medicines made with the plant and Phygelius capensis are used to inebriate boys during initiation ceremonies.

Ledebouria ovatifolia :
Used to treat backache.

Leea guineensis :
In Sierra Leone a hot decoction of the leaves is held in the mouth to relieve toothache.
In Liberia it is important in witchcraft ceremony, to strengthen an oath, being impervious to occult influence, and therefore giving assurance of purity of motive, etc.
Leonotis species :
Leonotis intermedia (Klip-Dagga),
Leonotis leonurus (Lion’s Ear),
Leonotis nepetifolia,
Leonotis ocymifolia var ocymifolia,
Leonotis ocymifolia var raineriana (Wild Dagga).
Leonotis is traditionally smoked by tribesmen of Southern Africa.

Linum thunbergii :
Used by the Sotho for pain, and also as a protective charm for homes.
Used to purify the blood, and as a charm to prevent accidents.

Lippia javanica :
Lippia species are indigenous shrubs with aromatic, opposite leaves and small white flowers. Leaves are steeped and taken as a general health tea.

Littonia modesta :
Corms are used as aphrodisiacs by the Zulus.
They are also sometimes taken as a love charm emetic.
Colchicine alkaloids occur in the plant.
Azetine-2-carboxylic acid is found in the seeds.
The potential toxin colchicine is known in the genus Littonia.

Lobelia coronopifolia :
Used to make `ubulawu’.
Used to treat bad luck or constant bad dreams.

Lobelia flaccida :
Used to make `ubulawu’.

Lobelia erinus :
Basuthu witchdoctors prepare a lotion from it with which to wash divining bones to make them more accurate.

Lobelia pinifolia :
The resinous root is taken as a stimulant.



Lonchocarpus capassa :
Tonga diviners administer a drink made from the root of L. capassa together with the leaf of Datura stramonium, to disputants who appear before them for a settlement.
Smoke from the burning roots is used as an inhalant for colds.
The Luvale regard the plant as a lucky charm.
Saponins are indicated in the rootbark.



Maesa lanceolata :

The bark of Maesa lanceolata is used in cold water infusions (ubulawu) for ancestor communication.
The Maasai from Kenya use the bark as a stimulant.
Maesa lanceolata contains triterpenoid saponins.

Mentha aquatica :
Used as a stimulant.
The Xhosas, Chuanas, and Sutos use the plant as a tea substitute.
Infusions are used as sprinkling charms against evil.
Used as a protective charm against evil spirits.
Also used for fragrant, relaxing bath.

Merremia bipinnatipartita & Merremia kentrocaulos.

Millettia grandis :
Roots are burned in the hut as a tranquillizer to dispel worries.
Recipes also exist for sleep-inducing cures based on the roots.

Mimosa cinerea (synonyms = Desmanthus nutans, Desmanthus trichostachys. There are two other Desmanthus species currently used as ayahuasca analogues, perhaps Mimosa cinerea has a similar chemical profile.) :
Roots are an ingredient in a decoction taken to ease pain or rubbed into incisions cut over the painful area.
The root is used in East Africa as an aphrodisiac.
Bark is used as a ritual cleanser or for ritual cleansing.
The Pedi & Lobedu of South Africa use the pods to remove evil spirits.
Has medicinal-magical properties.
The presence of alkaloids and saponins have been indicated in the roots and leaves.



Mimosa nilotica :

The Maasai of east Africa use a drug called Olkiloriti which is obtained
from the preparation of the root and bark of the Mimosa nilotica tree. It
is used as a narcotic, excitant, stimulant, and to prevent hunger and
thirst. Warriors use Olkiloriti prior to battle in order to enter a state of
frenzy, and to prevent fear & fatigue.

In East Africa the bark is used as a stimulant. The root is also used as an
aphrodisiac and to treat impotence.

Medicinally, Olkiloriti is used by the Maasai to aid digestion, treat
dysentery, tuberculosis and impotence.

Mimosa nilotica is also a source of antioxidants. Some crude extracts seem
to have stronger antioxidant properties than either vitamin C or vitamin E.

Compounds found in the leaves include N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine, and
tetrahydroharmane (Bhakuni et al. 1969).



Mesembryanthemum crystallinum & Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum

Mimosa adianthifolia :
The roots are used by the Chwabo tribe to induce dreams and to
enhance memory.

Mimosa senegal :
The leaf has tested positive for tryptamines according to at least one scientific study.

Momordica foetida + involucrata :
The Zulus take an infusion or a decoction of the runners as a sedative.
Momordica balsamina :
Roots are used as aphrodisiacs.

Mondia whitei :
In West Africa, the roots are used to make a very energizing drink for wedding parties; the root can be extracted with alcohol.
In South Africa, the roots are used to make a refreshing beer, and root infusions also have aphrodisiac properties.
Roots are also used as an aphrodisiac in Zimbabwe.
Unspecified parts (probably the roots) are used for impotence by the Shambala.
Roots are used for body pain by the Bondei.
The roots are said to taste bitter at first and then sweet. They are also said to taste like liquorice, or ginger without its pungency, and have a vanilla-like odor. The roots are used to make a type of ginger-beer.

Moraea spathulata :
Used as a protective charm.

Mundulea sericea :
Unspecified parts are used as a divining medicine by the Kgatla.
The leaves, pods, bark and roots have been used in various countries for poisoning fish; the leaves are safely browsed by cattle. It is used medicinally and ritually as a purifying emetic, and root infusions are taken for infertility.
Root bark is used as a prophylactic for general health maintenance.
Warning about Mundulea sericea bark :
Rotenone, deguelin, tephrosin, munduserone, and mundulone are some of the compounds that have been found in the bark.
Type of toxin: rotenoids; active compounds: deguelin, tephrosin & rotenone (unconfirmed). The latter two are poisonous when inhaled or injected. LD50 of injected rotenone = 2.8 mg/kg in mice, and a strong emetic when taken by mouth.

Myrothamnus flabellifolius :
Young leaves are smoked in pipes for analgesic effects.
Early settlers used the plant to alleviate pain, and Shona healers administer medicines from the plant to cure madness.
In Tanganyika, the fruit of the plant M. flabellifolia - a well known medicinal plant used in various regions of Northern Africa - is smoked with tobacco or as a tobacco substitute.
The Zulus call it `uvukwabafile’ and also snuff the leaves.
The leaves are snuffed by the Ndebele to chase away evil spirits.
Plants are also used to bring good luck in Zimbabwe.
Also used as a tonic; an infusion of the plant is drunk by the Zulu’s as a restorative.
describes a Myrothamnus that is smoked for psychoactive effects in Madagascar (off the coast of Southern Africa).



Nuxia floribunda :
Leaves are used in rituals.

Nymania capensis :
Recent research has shown that this plant has powerful antifeedant properties, similar to other exotic members of the family such as the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) and the weedy seringa tree (Melia azedarach).

Nymphaea nouchali :
Love charm & aphrodisiac.
The decoction of the flower is narcotic and sedative.



Oncoba spinosa (Snuff-box Tree) :
Is used to make traditional snuff boxes.

Ormocarpum trichocarpum :
Bark increases strength and stamina.
Roots are medicinal for stomach complaints.

Ornithogalum juncifolium :
Used as a protective charm against evil.

Ornithogalum tenuifolium subsp. Tenuifolium :
Used as a charm to cause good or evil.

Osyridicarpus schimperianus :
Used as a protective charm.
Remedy for unwell babies and makes them sleep well.



Pachycarpus asperifolius :
The Xhosa take powdered tubers as snuff for hysteria and headaches.
[There are several plants used as snuffs. Powders known as `umkhwangu’ are used as snuff for headaches.]
Plant infusions are used as sprinkling protective charms against evil.

Parinari curatellifolia :
Is used as a ritual medicine in the Congo.

Passerina filiformis `Kannabos’ :
The Hottentots drink a decoction for analgesic effects.
Pavetta zeyheri :
For ancestral spirits.

Pelargonium luridum :
Roots are a love charm.

Peltophorum africanum :
A panacea against bad luck and evil spirits; the leaves are used in washes to expel evil spirits.
Roots are used for backache and abdominal pain.
A "rain" tree. Bark used by men to attract women.

Peucedanum thodei :
Reputed to be used by sangomas to bring rain, but only in times of extreme drought.

Phoenix reclinata :
The Tonga’s make an intoxicating drink by fermenting the sap of Phoenix reclinata `Zulu iSundu’, and of Hyphaene crinita `Zulu iLala’, Tonga and Shangaan, nnala. Unfermented, the sap is harmless and tastes like flat ginger beer.

Phygelius capensis :

Medicines made with Ledebouria cooperi and Phygelius capensis are used to inebriate boys during initiation ceremonies.

Phyllanthus reticulatus :
Called `potato bush’ because the plant smells of baked potatoes in the afternoon.
The root-bark is used to ensure visions.
Froth from rootbark, stirred in water, gives native diviners clear and penetrating vision.
There’s another interesting Phyllanthus, Phyllanthus flacourtioides.
The bark is burnt and the ashes are rubbed onto the body as a stimulant and tonic.
The alkaloid phyllabine has been isolated from the rootbark (Foussard-Blanpin et al. 1967). Phyllabine chloride slightly inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAOI), and stimulates the suprarenal glands, producing secretion of adrenaline (Quevauviller et al. 1965, 1967).

Pittosporum viridiflorum :
Root infusions are used for accuracy in divining.
Basutu witchdoctors use this plant when working the divining bones.
Roots and bark are also used as aphrodisiacs, and are sometimes added to beer.
Bark decoctions also have analgesic (pain-killing) and calming effects (sedative).
Active saponins have been isolated from the plant.

Pleiospilos bolusii :
The name `Duimpie-snuif' literally means finger-snuff; traditionally it is
used as a snuff. The pulverized plant is also reported to be an hallucinogenic additive to tobacco to be smoked. Or else it can simply be dried and powdered and used as a snuff. The dosage is small with approximately 50 milligrams of plant chewed producing a feeling of euphoria, which lasts for about 20 minutes; this is followed by sedation.
We also have live-plants for sale.

Plumbago auriculata :
Powdered roots or dried leaves are taken as snuff to relieve headaches.
Pounded root infusions are administered as emetics to dispel bad dreams.
Unspecified parts are used as protective charms against evil.
A stick of the plant is placed in the thatch of huts to ward off lightning

Pollichia campestris :
A decoction is used as a refreshing additive to the bath.
The fruits are edible, and are eaten by Suto children. The fruits are white, fleshy, edible, and pleasantly flavored – rather like white mulberries.

Polygala virgata :
Used as a blood purifier.

Psoralea pinnata - Student Dagga :
Cold water infusions from roots, mixed with roots of Helinus integrifolius, are pounded and stirred until the liquid froths, and taken as emetics by healers afflicted with mental disturbances associated with their calling.
An emetic for hysteria is made from the roots, pounded with the roots of Helinus integrifolius, and stirred with cold water until a froth appears.

Psychotria species :
Psychotria capensis,
Psychotria kirkii,
Psychotria peduncularis var nyassana,
Psychotria zombemontera.
A complex C55 alkaloid, psychotrine, apparently derived from a methyl-
tryptamine precursor, has been isolated from P. beccaroides (Hart et al.
1974).
P. capensis is used medicinally for gastric complaints (Pooley, 1993), and
root infusions are taken as emetics.
P. emetica and P. ipecacuana are reported to be poisonous on account of
their emetic properties (Pammel, 1911).
The genus Psychotria consists of about 1400 species.

Pterocarpus angolensis :
Used for magical purposes.
Roots are used for general body pains, and as aphrodisiacs.

Protea caffra :
Roots & flowers used for deworming and for psychosis.
Protosparagus plumosus :
Is an ubulawu plant used for conscious dreaming.

Protosparagus setaceus :
Tubers are used to make love charm emetics.

Protosparagus virgatus :
Tubers are taken as love charm emetics, and are also used as protection against evil.

Psiadia punctulata :
It is put under the pillow to prevent dreaming.

Ptaeroxylon obliquum :
Powdered bark is traditionally used as a snuff for recreation purposes.




Rabiea albinota :
Is used as a snuff, or smoked, to cause a state of euphoria.
We have Rabiea albipuncta & Rabiea difformis seeds.

Ranunculus multifidus :
Leaves are used as a cleanser and for pain by the Xhosa.
The Sotho use smoke from the burning plants as inhalants for headaches.
Powdered leaves are used as snuff by the Tswana.
Contains the glycoside, ranuculin, which is converted enzymatically into the irritant volatile oil, protoanemonin.
Aqueous extracts from whole plants show some anti-microbial activity.

Raphionacme hirsuta :
An enervating and highly intoxicating beer is made from the tuber, with the addition of sugar or some other sweetening agent.

Rauvolfia caffra :
The bark is used as an intoxicant in Tanzania by the Chagga.
In the Transkei, bark is used by traditional healers as a tranquillizer for patients believed to have been possessed by spirits.
Dried leaves are used as a snuff for headaches.
Stems are used for making beer.
Blood-purifying decoctions are made from the rootbark.
Bark is used in medicines for abdominal pain, and also to ward off evil spirits.
In Kenya, the leaves are used to help newly circumcised boys to sleep.
Rootbark contains the alkaloid reserpine, which has a sedative and tranquillizing effect but is not hypnotic.
The alkaloid yohimbine is also present in Rauvolfia.

Rhamnus prinoides :
The roots are used to enhance narcosis.
The leaves are used as a stimulant.
R. prinoides leaves and wood are used to flavor alcoholic beverages in East Africa.
Quality `tej’ (the name of an Ethiopian drink) is made using equal amounts of `chat’ (Catha edulis) and `hop’ (Rhamnus prinoides). The quality of the tej is said to deteriorate after 8 days, after which time, the tej becomes more sour.
The leaves of Vernonia amygdalina are sometimes used in the preparation of the local drink, tela in place of gesho (Rhamnus prinoides), and cooked leaves are edible.

Rhoicissus tridentata (Bushman's Grape) :
One of the `four vines’ used in the initiation of Basutu witchdoctors.
Roots for menstrual pains, childbirth, impotence, barrenness, syphilis, bladder & kidney complaints. Whole plant for chest complaints. Leaves or roots for otitis.

Rhus chirindensis :
The bark is used a lot by diviners (izangoma).
It is also used as protection from evil spirits.

Rhus divaricata :
The dried crushed leaves are smoked to cure coughs and colds.
One of the plants used by witchdoctors in rain making.

Rhus erosa :
The leaf is dried and ground, then mixed with tobacco and used as a snuff.
It is also used in rain-making ceremonies.
Some Rhus species are used in trance-induction.
Other Rhus species are used to make mead.
We have numerous Rhus species’ seeds.

Rhus oblongifolia :
Is used by trainee diviners to cause dreams if the initiate is having trouble dreaming.

Rhus lancea, R. pendulina & R. undulata :
The small dry fruit are edible and were once used as an important ingredient of mead or honey beer. The vernacular name `karee’ is said to be the original Khoi word for mead and the word `karri’ is still used in some parts of the Cape for mead.

Rothmannia capensis :
The Rozi use burning smoke from the roots for rheumatism.

Rubia cordifolia ssp conotricha :

Plant decoctions are traditionally taken by Sotho diviners to facilitate divining and are also used to purify divining bones.
A decoction of the plant is drunk by aspiring diviners to give them insight into the message of the divining bones.
Used by diviners to provide insight and protection.
The roots are used to make `ubulawu’.
Root and leaf decoctions are reputed to have analgesic effects.
Root decoctions are taken at bedtime for the treatment of impotence.
Zulu men take a leaf or root decoction to cure lack of seminal emission.
Used as a love charm emetic.

Rubus ludwigii + rigidus :
The Swazi’s take the powdered root of r. ludwigii and a decoction of the root or root bark of r. rigidus as a pain-reliever.

Rumex sagittatus :
Unknown parts are used to make a snuff in Lesotho.
Also used to alleviate pain and toothache.
The powdered root is taken as a snuff to cure headaches.
The Zulu use it to dispel evil spirits.
Planted as a protective charm.
The leaves contain oxalic acid.



Salvia repens & runcinata :
The Sutos mix one or the other with their tobacco.

Salvia species :
Salvia africana-lutea,
Salvia aurita var aurita,
Salvia chamelaeagnea,
Salvia dentata,
Salvia disermas,
Salvia dolomitica,
Salvia lanceolata,
Salvia muirii,
Salvia radula,
Salvia repens,
Salvia runcinata,
Salvia scabra.

Sansevieria hyacinthoides :
Roots to bring back ancestors.
Protective charm.
Used to treat earache and toothache.

Satyrium parviflorum `Devil Orchid’ ::
Used as a love charm emetic.
Tuber infusions are sprinkled around huts and yards to ward off evil.

Scabiosa columbaria :
Called `isilawu esimhlope' in indigenous divination.
The ritual use consists of adding the roots to make `ubulawu'.
Other uses include :
a tonic for tiredness or weakness,
a love charm,
to treat sterility.
The plant yields the glycoside scabiosin or scabioside.

Scaevola plumieri :
Bark used as a temporary replacement for a charm.

Sceletium emarcidum &
Sceletium tortuosum `Kanna / Kougoed' :
Sceletium has been used by hunter-gatherers and shepherds as a mood-enhancer for millennia.
We also have pure Sceletium tortuosum powder.

Schefflera umbellifera :
Bark is a good luck charm & is used in the acquisition of metaphysical powers.
The leaves have been used to treat insanity.

Schinziophyton rautanenii :

The seed is used in Zimbabwe to facilitate divination.

Schizocarphus nervosus :
Enhances personal charm especially in affairs of love.
Ziyamlandela is alternate name meaning girls follow him.

Schotia brachypetala :
Bark is used in red bark mixtures known as `ikhubalo’ to ward off evil.
They are also used to strengthen the body.
Bark is used to make the red dye for sangomas cloaks (indigenous diviner healers.)
Bark decoctions are also taken as emetics after excessive beer drinking or to treat those who abuse alcohol.
The bark is also used in purification rites.
Smoke from the leaves is inhaled for nosebleeds.

Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra :
Roots are used for many purposes in Zimbabwe including to arouse or prevent possession from spirits.
Bark decoctions are taken as teas twice a day to strengthen the heart.
Widely used for abdominal pain.
The bark and roots are used to make a cleansing medicine for the stomach.
The Vhavenda use bark for headache, toothache, and backache.
The `Marula’ fruit is made into the world’s 2nd most widely sold liqueur (called Amarula).

The natural fruit juice is also used in certain Shangaan and Thonga religious ceremonies.
Unknown parts are also used by the Shangaan to facilitate divination (probably the bark).
The Zulu’s have multiple uses for this plant including to arouse or prevent possession from spirits, to facilitate divination, to prevent possession by evil spirits, an intoxicant, magical purposes, ritual cleansing, a tonic for weakness, and to transfer qualities of fertility & tenderness.
The fruit falls off the tree and ripens on the ground. It is collected and taken home, eaten or used to make a beer called `bukanye’. The pips are removed from the fruit by boiling it in water. The skin comes off and is discarded and the flesh can be separated from the pip. The pips are stored for use later and the flesh is usually eaten or allowed to ferment to make beer.

Scutia myrtina :

It is a custom to take soup with plant extracts by the Maasai. This is done to improve the taste, to keep diseases away and for curative purposes. The moran may however take some species in soup as a drug or stimulant. In most cases the root bark is used. Other forms include the root, stem bark or pieces of stem.
The most commonly used `soup’ species are:
Scutia myrtina (osananguruti),
Acacia nilotica (olkiloriti), and
Pappea capensis (oltimigomi).

Sebaea sedoides :
Cold water infusions of pounded roots are taken as love charm emetics.

Senecio coronatus:
Mixed with tobacco to make it milder.
Used as a purification purgative.

Senecio macrospermus :
Provides an invisibility charm for warriors.


Senna singueana :
Is used to chase away evil spirits.

Sideroxylon inerme :
The Zulus take an infusion of the bark to dispel bad dreams.
Kaempferol has been isolated from the bark.

Silene bellidioides :
Taken as a love charm emetic.

Silene burchellii :
Used as a tonic and for love charms.

Silene capensis :
The Xhosa use the roots as an oneirogenic (dream-inducing) plant and during the initiation period to become a traditional diviner/healer.


Silene species :
We also have seeds of Silene clandestine & Silene primulaeflora.

Sparaxis grandiflora :
Used as an antidote against sorcery.

Sphedamnocarpus pruriens :
The Chopi use it for people believed to be possessed by evil spirits.
Roots are used for mental disorders.

Sphenostylis angustifolia :
Used to cleanse the stomach and blood.

Stachys aethiopica :
The Sutos inhale the smoke for a soothing effect.
Also is used medicinally for feverish delirium.

Stangeria eriopus :
It is used in a protective sprinkling charm to prevent `abathakathi’ (sorcerer’s familiars) from entering the homestead. Ash from the plant was also once used to protect warring parties as they traveled. Cold water tuber infusions are taken as emetics to cleanse and protect the body from harmful spirits. Tubers are also used as charms to dispel bad dreams, and are reported to be used for pains in the bones.

Stephania abyssinica :
Pain-killing and tranquillizing effects are known from this species.
The root also has aphrodisiac effects.
Also used as a charm to find lost articles or to discover secrets.
In the medicine market of Freetown in Sierra Leone, pieces of root or stem are sold to be used as a sedative.

Strophanthus petersianus :
Unspecified parts are used by herbalists as a charm against evil.

Strychnos madagascariensis :
The root is used in sangoma initiations.

Strychnos spinosa :
Roots are used as an aphrodisiac in Zimbabwe.
Root and leaf decoctions are used as analgesics in central Africa.
Narcotic effects are reported from Mauritius.
The alkaloid harmin has been found in bark and leaves of Strychnos usambarensis.
In Madagascar the fruit on the east coast are scarcely edible, whereas those on the west coast are the chief source of alcohol for the people.
Certain South African tribes use the plant in death ceremonies.

Strychnos usambarensis :
The alkaloid harmin has been found in the bark and leaves.
Stembark and leaves are used for local pain relief, general weakness and as a tonic.

Sutherlandia frutescens :
The seeds and leaves are smoked by laborers as a cannabis substitute in Namaqualand.
The leaves are sedative when smoked.
The leaves are also smoked for extreme pain.
This plant is stated to be amongst the most multi-purpose and useful of the medicinal plants in southern Africa. The uses of this wonderful plant were originally learned from the Khoi, San, and Nama people.
Sutherlandia is regarded as the African adaptogen par excellence.
Sutherlandia is also taken to assist and boost the immune system.
Is this the `sch-oo-ah’ that features so prominently in the San myths?




Tabernaemontana coffeoides & elegans :
Various indole alkaloids of the ibogamine and voacamine-type are known in the genus.
Isovoacangine and voacamidine have sympathomimetic properties.
T. crassa and T. pachysiphone are reported to stimulate the CNS and to have hallucinogenic properties. They have been found to increase the hypertensive activity of adrenalin and also to have local anesthetic properties.
Analgesic components isolated from T. pauciflora and T. pandacaqui include voacangine and coronaridine, both of which showed significant analgesic effects.
The Shona use the root of Tabernaemontana elegans as an aphrodisiac.

Tacazzea apiculata :
Used as a tonic.

Talinum caffra :
Root infusions are taken for nervousness.
Ground root preparations are also used for washing in Transkei.
Root and leaf infusions are soapy.

Tarchonanthus camphorates :
The leaves are smoked for sedative effects.

Tecomaria capensis :
Powdered bark relieves pain, is a sedative, and induces sleep.

Tetradenia riparia :
Leaves for respiratory ailments, body itches, wounds, fevers & malaria. Roots are blood purifier.
The Tswana use leaf or shoot infusions to calm patients.
Leaf infusions are reported to produce drowsiness.
Two cases of suspected human poisoning from self-administered overdoseage of hot water extracts have been reported.

Thalictrum rhynchocarpum :
Used as a love charm.

Trema orientalis :
Pods and seeds are used for tired muscles and aching bones.
Leaves are used as tonics.
Leaf extracts produce significant analgesic activity.

Tritonia lineata :
Called `Bergkatjietee’ (literally mountain lion tea), and also known as
`isilawu esibomvu’.
It is used to make ubulawu.

Tulbaghia ludwigiana :
The bulb is a love charm used by young men when wanting to propose love.

Tulbaghia violacea :
Tuber infusions are taken as love charm emetics.
In the Transkei, tubers are traditionally rubbed on the body as a protection from evil spirits before ritual dancing by diviners.
Cultivated to keep snakes away from the home.

Turbina oblongata :
The Sotho's snuff the leaves, or add them to tobacco to be smoked.

Tylosema fassoglense :
Family Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae)
Synonyms Bauhinia fassoglensis, Bauhinia kirkii
A decoction of the roots and flowers is drunk to treat impotence.



Vangueria infausta :
Decoctions of macerated roots are taken as aphrodisiacs.
Trees are reputed to induce sleep during the flowering season.
Vepris lanceolata :
Leaves are traditionally burned to dispel evil spirits in Transkei.
Unspecified parts are used as protective charms against `umkhovu’, familiar spirits associated with sorcery.

Vernonia adoensis :
Used to treat back pain.

Vernonia colorata :
Roots are used as tonics.
Unspecified parts are used as stimulants in Angola.

Vernonia mespilifolia :
Unspecified parts are used in infusions as love charm emetics.

Vernonia myriantha :
Medicinal for the mentally afflicted.

Vernonia natalensis :
Leaves are burned and inhaled to drive away evil spirits in Zimbabwe.
Several compounds have been isolated from aerial parts including germacrene D, lupeyl acetate, bicyclogermacrene, lupenone, spathulenol, stigmasterol, and four glaucolides. A lactone was found in the roots.

Vernonia oligocephala :
Leaves used for a tea.

Vernonia pauciflora :
Leaves are used as a substitute for cigarettes in Ethiopia.

Vernonia tigna :
Mixtures for menstrual irregularities & as abortifacient. Anthelmintic. Leaves & roots treat arthritis & to improve male erections.

Vigna luteola :
Used as a love charm emetic.

Voacanga africana :
Source of vinpocetine.
Enhances memory and mental alertness.
The seeds are used for magical purposes in West Africa.
The root bark of Voacanga species is generally ingested to combat fatigue and increase endurance of drummers and hunters and, in higher doses, also for magic and religious purposes.
In Senegal a leaf decoction is drunk as a tonic and against fatigue.
Pulp from the leaves or stem bark is applied to soothe convulsions in children and the juice is put in the nostrils as a tranquilizer.
V. africana is known to contain ibogaine like alkaloids.
Active ingredients include Vinpocetine, Vincamine, Vinburnine, Voacamine, Voacagine.
Potential application : relieve drug addiction.

Voacanga thouarsii :
The uses of Voacanga thouarsii are similar to those of Voacanga africana.
The discovery of the transformation of tabersonin into vincamine in two steps opened a new way for the commercial exploitation of Voacanga seeds (Zsadon, 1982).
Vincamine is used for the treatment of cerebral vascular disorders.
Seeds of Voacanga thouarsii and Voacanga africana appear to be the best sources of tabersonin, and V. thouarsii seeds are reported to give a higher yield in tabersonin than V. africana seeds.



Watsonia densiflora :

Flower stalks are used for smoking dagga (cannabis).
(The term `dagga' usually refers to cannabis, but `wilde-dagga' or wild-dagga refers to Leonotis leonorus.)

Withania somnifera :
Is used as a panacea (cure-all), an aphrodisiac, and for anti-ageing effects.
Excellent results have been recorded from an alcoholic preparation of Withania; the effects are hypnotic. A watery extract is slightly narcotic. Withania is also a sedative.
The root is supposed to be narcotic.



Ximenia americana :
Powdered root is taken in beer as an aphrodisiac.
In South Africa they make beer from the fruit.
Leaf decoctions are taken for toothache.
A decoction of the leafy twigs is used in Nigeria as a mouthwash for toothache.



Zanthoxylum capense :
Roots are used for impotency.
Roots are also used for chest pains, while dried ground rootbark is directly applied for toothache.
Bark is used as a tonic and blood purifier.

Ziziphus mucronata :
The fruits are used to distill a strong spirit. They are first mashed and then soaked in water for 2 days before being distilled.
Branches are used by the Zulu’s to summon ancestral spirits from an old to a new dwelling.
The leaves have aphrodisiac properties, and the roots are an indigenous panacea.

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Sorry I didn't post this as an attachment, but it was copied straight from a french forum so I don't have the original pdf or txt to link. These plants are fascinating because they will all eventually become commonplace to us as African herbalism becomes more accessible as those nations slowly industrialize, and many of these plants appear quite powerful. I don't doubt for a second the next Ska Pastora or Kratom is lurking in these lists waiting for the adventurous and brave to discover and share with the Western ethnobotanical hivemind. It would also be quite grand if psychedelic tourism ala Peruvian curanderismo retreats would spread to the African continent and revitalize the economies there, it could replace the Safari industry and also provide the indigenous religions protection against the encroachment of Christian and Muslim missionaries who strive to delete those ancient indigenous faiths. African and Australian Aboriginal shamanism I think will prove to be the most advanced spiritual technologies worldwide, as they have had over 5,000 years unbroken history to refine their techniques....
 
Endurance
#19 Posted : 2/11/2014 11:31:15 AM

DMT-Nexus member


Posts: 125
Joined: 22-May-2013
Last visit: 27-Apr-2019
... A review paper on Khat (C. edulis) published recently in Archives of Toxicology is attached. Discusses historical context, legal status, pharmacodynamics and other useful information.

Valente, M. J., de Pinho, P. G., de Lourdes Bastos, M., Carvalho, F., & Carvalho, M. (2014). Khat and synthetic cathinones: a review. Archives of Toxicology, 88(1), 15-45.

PrimalWisdom, this might interest you as you mentioned an extraction attempt in an earlier thread... Have you continued you use/work with the plant?

Phlux- has also shared positive experiences from working with Catha edulis...

 
PrimalWisdom
#20 Posted : 2/11/2014 12:47:00 PM

Everything the light touches


Posts: 367
Joined: 25-May-2011
Last visit: 18-Jan-2015
WOW so much info - got me work cut out.

I have not been fortunate enough to cultivate Catha Edulis or find a source, so no more work has been done on it from my side.

There sure are a whole lot of plants worth taking a closer look at in the lists and papers though. But I bet one could spend their whole life investigating African plants and still only have scratched the surface due to the secrecy and sometimes obscurity of the plants or plant decoctions.

I mean Ubulawu for example can mean 1 plant or a mix of over 20 different ones. So this is definitley something to consider, along with a healthy appetite for superstition in African culture. I think there are waaay more "divine" plants here in Africa than we expect, we just need to be cautious, as usual.

Peace
Sonorous fractal manifestastions,
birthing golden vibrations,
that echo through folds of space & time,
ferry my soul closer to God

 
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