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Vepris Ampody - Workspace Options
 
Vodsel
#1 Posted : 9/3/2012 11:56:13 PM

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Jonathan Ott, Pharmacotheon (1996), Appendix B, p.402:

Quote:
Vepris ampody: Leaves and branches of this rutaceous plant were recently shown to be rich in N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Up to 0,22% DMT has been found in this plant, making it one of the richer known sources of this valuable compound (Kan-Fan et al. 1970).


The Vepris genus, particularly V. ampody, is featured in several long lists of DMT containing species, but no further information can be found in the Nexus.


Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, Rutacées, vol. 104: p. 61 (1950) [M.J. Vesque]


Ott's source is one paper in french published in Phytochemistry, 1970, Vol. 9, pp. 1283-1291 (Pergamon Press), titled "ALKALOIDS IN VEPRIS AMPODY (RUTACEAE)". I'm leaving it attached to this post.

According to the paper abstract,

Quote:
The known alkaloids, viz. N,N-dimethyltryptamine (1), kokusaginine (2), 2,4-dimethoxy 10-methyl-acridan-9-one (3), evoxanthine (4) and also phenylacetamide (5) have been isolated from the leaves and branches of Vepris ampody H. Perr. (Rutaceae). In addition, three new alkaloids belonging to 4-quinolone series have also been isolated and structures (6), (9) and (10) have been assigned to them.


And this is a translation from the general information the authors provide about Vepris ampody. My french is not that good and english is not even my mother language, so I apologize for any inaccuracies.

Quote:
Vepris ampody H. Perr. is a 15 to 20 m tall tree, with perennial foliage, often reduced to a shrub in the undergrowth of the big forest. It's a special species of Madagascar, very common in the eastern forest from sea level to 600m of altitude. Known in malagasy by the names of Ampody (Bezanozano dialect) or Malaimbovony (Betsimisaraka dialect), it provides good construction wood. It's a bitter and aromatic species in all of its parts. Crushed leaves are applied topically to concussions; bark tea is administered to treat colics and stomach aches. The studied sample was harvested in the forest of Analamazaotra, near Perinet.

Genus Vepris Comm. has 23 malagasy species. It is also represented in Africa, in the Comoros Islands, in Mauritius and counts with an indian species: Vepris bilocularis, studied by Govindachari and Sundararajan 5, who isolated from it kokusaginine, skimianine and flindersiamine. Presence of alkaloids has been signalled as well in another malagasy species: V. schmidelioides (Baker) Verdoorn, by Meyer and Pernet.

Alkaloids are extracted from V. ampody in the usual manner (yield: 2,8 g / kg), alumina chromatography and then silica chromatography. Several already known compounds are separated: N,N-dimethyltryptamine (1) (80%), kokusaginine (2) (5%), 2,4-dimethoxy 10-methyl-acridan-9-one (3) (0,5%), evoxanthine (4) (0,5%) and phenylacetamide (5) (0,001%); this last compound is not, strictly speaking, an alkaloid. It might be an artifact produced by action of ammonia upon a phenylacetic precursor.


Ammonia was used by the authors as a starting soak before Soxhlet. The rest of the paper describes mostly the new alkaloids also isolated and the extraction procedure. 1,5 kg of powdered leaves and stems were extracted with ether yielding 4,13 g of alkaloids, with 80% N,N-DMT. That equals the 0,224% yield.

The only other bits of information available so far have to do with its traditional use to treat malaria:

from Malaria and Plants | eHow.com.
Quote:
The Malagasy people have long used a variety of plants in order to treat malaria. These include Agavaceae, in which both the bark and leaves are mixed into a drink, along with the parts of other plants including Nymphaea lotus and Vepris ampody. This treats the symptoms of malaria including muscular aches and tiredness. This treatment is not only used for malaria but also other ailments such as diarrhea, fever and dysentery.


from Malaria Journal.
Quote:
A decoction of the leaf and bark is mixed with a selection of plants from the following list: Cinnamosma fragrans, Desmodium mauritianum, Ficus megapoda, Zanthoxylum tsihanimposa, Gambeya boiviniana, Peddia involucrata. This mixture is drunk (1 bowl, 3–4 times daily) to relieve malarial symptoms, tiredness, muscular aches and pains.


Another quote from this last paper is worth posting:

Quote:
A remarkable 80% of the Malagasy flora is endemic to the island and found nowhere else. However, there is a risk that useful species will be lost due to the alarming rate of deforestation. Thus, we must now preserve the flora, hold more discussions with traditional practitioners about herbal medicine, document ethnobotanical information and evaluate scientifically ethnomedicinally used plants to bridge the gap between empirical treatment and realism.


So I'm leaving this thread open for an obscure, isolated but very interesting species.

Do we have any nexians in Madagascar...? Smile

 

Trippy glass for trippy people.
 
pinkoyd
#2 Posted : 12/31/2012 3:05:45 AM

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Nope, not a Madagascarian, but excellent work uncovering that!

When Pharmacotheon first came out there was a buzz about Vepris, but no one knew a thing about it other than Ott's citation. This increases our knowledge about it by 1000%.Very happy
I already asked Alice.

 
Vodsel
#3 Posted : 12/31/2012 7:35:56 PM

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We need more, and looks like the possibility of contacting malagasy sources to obtain seeds will become a requirement...
 
SKA
#4 Posted : 1/1/2013 4:06:21 AM
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Excellent Topic. I hope this research is fruitfull.
There are so many acclaimed DMT containing plants in
the literature & on the webs...

I'm especially enthusiastic about some of these plants
that are easy to grow in Northern hemisphere, sunlight-poor climates.

May I also suggest Researching Delosperma species? Wikipedia
quotes Trout's Notes in claiming that D.ecklonis, D.esterhuyseniae,
D.harazianum Shibam, D.hirtum D.pergamentaceum & D.tradescantioides contain DMT.
It goes on by claiming that D.hallii & D.nubigenum contain 5-MeO &
that D.harazianum, D.lydenbergense & D.pageanum contain both 5-MeO & NN,DMT

This family seems a Tryptamine treasure, worthy of more research.
Too bad the Wikipedia link to Trout's note doesn't work. Does anyone
here have access to a copy or pdf of Trout's Notes? Any mention of
the Delosperma family in there?



of the various species of Phalaris
 
Vodsel
#5 Posted : 1/1/2013 1:16:16 PM

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Why not start a new thread yourself in this Collaborative Research Project compiling Delosperma Spp. information?

Phlux posted some impressive extraction pictures in this thread, although the freebasing step didn't go well and he speculated most of the yield might have been in n-oxide form. Also, endlessness mentioned Trout's notes regarding delosperma here.

I'd rather keep this thread for the Vepris genus or related Rutaceae species, but starting a Delosperma workspace makes lots of sense. There is an entry in Entropymancer's subforum opening thread and it is not taken yet Wink
 
 
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