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Psychotria viridis and Psychotria spp. Workspace Options
 
SnozzleBerry
#1 Posted : 6/18/2012 3:40:14 AM

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An initial glance through ethnobotanical literature presents four species that are frequently mentioned within the context of ayahuasca. There are numerous additional species that are claimed by Duke (I am currently assuming Dr. James Duke) to be used in ayahuasca, but as most citations to him have little more than a reference to him and finding his original research seems difficult at present, I have not currently included those species. If anyone else has more information (or original Duke research) to warrant adding additional species to this thread, that would be awesome.

Psychotria alba Ruiz & Pav.
  • =Mapouria alba (Ruiz & Pav.) Müll. Arg.
  • =Mapouria rigida Rusby
  • =Uragoga alba (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze

NOTE: According to Tropicos' citations of 5 works from 1987-1999, P. alba is a synonymous name for P. carthagenensis. While this seems to create confusion in the literature, it may not be that bad as the reported alkaloids for "both" plants have varied from none to almost exclusively dmt. Thus the variability observed in the literature may actually be only the variability within one species.

Psychotria carthagenensis

Nomenclature
Psychotria carthagenensis
  • =Mapouria alba (Ruiz & Pav.) Müll. Arg.
  • =Mapouria catharinensis Müll. Arg.
  • =Mapouria ficigemma (DC.) Lemée
  • =Mapouria fockeana (Miq.) Bremek.
  • =Mapouria pallescens Rusby
  • =Mapouria rabeniana Müll. Arg.
  • =Mapouria rigida Rusby
  • =Mapouria tristis Müll. Arg.
  • =Psychotria alba Ruiz & Pav.
  • =Psychotria ficigemma DC.
  • =Psychotria fockeana Miq.
  • =Psychotria foveolata Ruiz & Pav.
  • =Psychotria pallescens (Rusby) Standl.
  • =Psychotria sagraeana Urb.
  • =Psychotria tristicula Standl.
  • =Uragoga alba (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze
  • =Uragoga carthagenensis (Jacq.) Kuntze
  • =Uragoga foveolata (Ruiz & Pav.) M. Gómez


Distribution
(distribution for records of P. alba)


(distribution for records of P. carthagenensis)


Psychotria psychotriifolia

Nomenclature
Psychotria psychotriifolia
  • =Cephaelis psychotriifolia Seem.


Distribution


Chemistry

P. psychotriifolia
Quote:
DMT was reported in the leaf along with two non-indolic alkaloids by Der Marderosian et al. 1969. However, this material was later determined to have actually been P. viridis which had been erroneously misidentified.

If there are no additional references to this species aside from the Der Marderosian paper, it may be that this species is not an ayahuasca admixture.

Psychotria viridis

Nomenclature
Psychotria viridis
  • =Palicourea viridis (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.
  • =Psychotria glomerata Kunth
  • =Psychotria microdesmia Oerst.
  • =Uragoga glomerata (Kunth) Kuntze
  • =Uragoga microdesmia (Oerst.) Kuntze
  • =Uragoga viridis (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze


Distribution



References
Trout, Keeper of the. 2001. Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs Section 3, Part 1. Erowid
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Zaka
#2 Posted : 6/19/2012 2:19:55 AM
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Irie,
Good work!
I'm wanting details of the flowers of alba & carthagenensis.
I'm currently growing at least 5 species of psychotria. (at least 6 wild around)
I've noticed a difference with the flower structure between the standard (widely circulated) alba & (SAS) Brazilian alba...
Also info on psychotria poeppigiana, would be cool.
Respect,
Z
 
SnozzleBerry
#3 Posted : 6/19/2012 4:00:12 AM

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Zaka wrote:

I'm wanting details of the flowers of alba & carthagenensis.
...
I've noticed a difference with the flower structure between the standard (widely circulated) alba & (SAS) Brazilian alba...
Also info on psychotria poeppigiana, would be cool.

I'm working on getting botanical descriptions and updated botanical sketches for P. alba and P. carthagenensis...this week is kind of crazy, but I'm hoping to get some time to spend on it in the next couple of days and will post whatever I find.

I'm really excited to hear your statements on differing varieties within P. alba. Have you tried the Brazilian alba (and what do you mean by SAS?)...is it active? In my earlier research I stumbled across the varietal Psychotria alba var. tonsa that has an exclusively Brazilian distribution, but was unsure of its use in ayahuasca and had not seen any ethnobotanical descriptions, perhaps this is what you are seeing (more research is definitely needed).

Do you have any pointers for literature (or anecdotal information beyond Trout's comments) on P. poeppigiana? I haven't seen anything beyond Trout's mention, but I also have not had the time to give a thorough examination. The rabbit hole deepens Wink
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Phlux-
#4 Posted : 6/19/2012 2:51:07 PM

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Just wanted to mention the name of a local psychotria spp
psychotria capensis



il give it a shot in the stb pot once i get some more nonpolar solvent.
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Zaka
#5 Posted : 6/19/2012 4:14:13 PM
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Irie,
Here's a comparision.
Alba (standard)
First 3 photo's

Alba Brazilian (SAS the initials of the supplier)
4-6

Nervosa..
Last 2

Respect,
Z
Zaka attached the following image(s):
P6091907.JPG (80kb) downloaded 726 time(s).
P6091906.JPG (86kb) downloaded 724 time(s).
P6091904.JPG (75kb) downloaded 730 time(s).
P6091903.JPG (79kb) downloaded 727 time(s).
P3311710.JPG (72kb) downloaded 725 time(s).
P6091897.JPG (81kb) downloaded 724 time(s).
P5241840.JPG (72kb) downloaded 721 time(s).
P5241839.JPG (73kb) downloaded 717 time(s).
 
endlessness
#6 Posted : 6/20/2012 2:58:15 AM

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I just linked the Ayahuasca Admixtures Workspace thread here, so I'll post the information regarding psychotria here from now on, starting with what was in the other thread:

In this link there are many pictures of different locally known varieties of Psychotria viridis or closely related species



Oh and, beautiful pics and plants once again, Zaka!
 
SnozzleBerry
#7 Posted : 7/20/2012 1:14:05 PM

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Lopes et. al. Taxonomic significance of alkaloids and iridoid glucosides in the tribe Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 32 (2004) pp. 1187-1895
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SnozzleBerry
#8 Posted : 7/20/2012 5:01:31 PM

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In checking over some stuff in this thread, I realized that I was in error to include P. alba as a valid name/species. It is in fact a synonym for P. carthagenensis (see edited first post).

Further nomenclatural research on the Brazilian variety of what was thought to be P. alba (but is P. carthagensis), P alba. var. tonsa, shows that the name for this plant has been replaced with Mapouria schlechtendaliana. Thus far, no relevant ethnobotanical literature has been found.
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BecometheOther
#9 Posted : 7/20/2012 10:15:48 PM

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This whole collaborative research project is an amazing thing. Hats off to those who are really getting this going!

IT will be so interesting to see where this ends up in the next year or so! In my mind we are the first people to really take a crack at putting these pieces together
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SnozzleBerry
#10 Posted : 7/24/2012 1:56:58 AM

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Distribution info for Psychotria spp. found to have an indole chromophore in the above paper or otherwise known as psychoactive.

Psychotria carthagenensis syn. alba
(distribution for records of P. alba)


(distribution for records of P. carthagenensis)


Psychotria barbiflora


Psychotria deflexa


Psychotria vellosiana syn. hancorniifolia


Psychotria klainei
Located in Gabon

Psychotria psychotriifolia


Psychotria viridis
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endlessness
#11 Posted : 10/23/2012 3:44:55 PM

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All of below copied from Trout's Notes on ayahuasca.

Psychotria alba
Ruíz & Pavón


Psychotria alba has been reported with the common names: tupamaqui and yagé.

It is said to be used by the UdV (and others?) for brewing ayahuasca. Chemistry is apparently unexamined outside of human bioassay.
Native Habitat's on-line catalog claims it is 60% as strong as P. viridis. More recently this was questioned based on purported analytical reports (lacking details).

Synonyms:

Psychotria albacostata Rusby
Psychotria macrophylla subsp. albacostata (Rusby) Steyerm.
Mapouria rigida Rusby
Uragoga alba (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze
(Considered a synonym of P. carthagenensis by Brako & Zarucchi 1993. Ruíz & Pavon considered them to be separate species.
It should be asked whether this synonymity versus nonsynonymity is possibly involved in the disparate analytical results published for P. carthagenensis)

Distribution:


P. alba collections have been reported from: Bolivia, Ecuador & Peru (See also under carthagenensis)
Synonyms & distribution information was from MOBOT [http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html] (Includes numerous geo-coordinates of field collections)

P. alba herbarium vouchers and collections can be found using the search engine at the NY Botanical Gardens:
http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp

See a Psychotria alba photo; with flowers at:
http://www.nativehabitat.com/plants.html


Reported analysis:


No chemical analysis has been located(?!) CHECK Fericgla & hoasca analysis


Psychotria carthagenensis Jacquin


Psychotria carthagenensis (frequently spelled carthaginensis) has been reported with the common names: rami appane, rani appani, sameruca, wy-soo-dö, yagé, and yage-chacruna.

The extent to which this plant is used for brewing ayahuasca is in need of further clarification as conflicting accounts exist.

Synonyms:

Psychotria alba Ruiz & Pav. (This is according to Brako & Zarucchi 1993; Ruíz & Pavon considered them to be separate species)
Psychotria ficigemma DC.
Psychotria fockeana Miq.
Psychotria foveolata Ruiz & Pav.
Psychotria sagraeana Urb.
Mapouria fockeana (Miq.) Brem.
Tapiphyllum cinerascens subsp.
laevius (K.Schum.) Verdc.
Uragoga alba (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze
Uragoga carthagenensis (Jacq.) Kuntze
Uragoga foveolata (Ruiz & Pav.) M.Gómez
Vangueria velutina var. laevior K.Schum.



Reported occurrences:

Mexico (Chiapas), Cuba, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
Synonyms & distribution information was from MOBOT [http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html] (Includes numerous geo-coordinates of field collections)

P. viridis herbarium vouchers and collections can be found using the search engine at the NY Botanical Gardens:
http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp


Reported analysis:

Some have been found to be potent [highest reported value was 0.65% by dry wt.] while others lacked DMT entirely.

Reported analysis has been variable; mostly negative.

[It is said that one or more small spine-like structures (dolmatia-like) must be present on the underside of the leaf in order for a Psychotria individual to be a useful plant. There are indications that this is not always supported by chemical analysis.]


Psychotria carthaginensis Jacq.

["Rami appani"; Culina Indians, Marcos. Collected 4 September 1968. Vouchers were made.]
0.65% DMT in dry leaf. [99% of 0.66% total alkaloid content by dry weight.]
Their specimens contained more alkaloid than the P. viridis they also analyzed.
"practically all DMT"
Traces of MMT and 2-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline as minor alkaloids.
Rivier & Lindgren 1972.

Psychotria carthaginensis Jacquin

Other assays have detected no DMT in this species. Example: McKenna et al. 1984a, who analyzed DMCK #109 "Yage-chacruna" from Tarapoto. As it was sterile, they considered their identification tentative)
&
Leal & Elisabetsky 1996b, who examined vouched Brazilian material using general alkaloid precipitation reagents and reported detecting no alkaloids. They mentioned that unpublished work by others had also detected no alkaloids in specimens collected at several sites in Brazil.


Psychotria horizontalis[size] Swartz


Common name: "tupamaqui"

Reported by Duke as being incorporated in ayahuasca (people, activity, chemistry and a reference to a citation other than Duke were not included with the claim)

Synonyms:


Myrstiphyllum horizontalis (Sw.) Millsp.
Uragoga horizontalis (Sw.) Kuntze


Reported occurrences:

Psychotria horizontalis has been reported from: Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit), Cuba, Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela.

Synonyms & distribution information was from MOBOT [http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html] (Includes numerous geo-coordinates of field collections)

P. horizontalis herbarium vouchers and collections can be found using the search engine at the NY Botanical Gardens:
http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp


Images:

Fruiting plant of horizontalis


Fruit close-up


Leaf of same:



Reported analysis:


Apparently no analysis has been reported.




Psychotria marginata Swartz


Common names: "sanaguillo" & "yagé"

Reported by Duke as being incorporated in ayahuasca (people, activity, chemistry and a reference to a citation other than Duke were not included with the claim)

Synonyms:

Psychotria marginata Bremek.
Psychotria nicaraguensis Benth.
Myrstiphyllum marginatum (Sw.) Hitchc.
Uragoga marginata (Sw.) Kuntze


Reported occurrences:

(all except those marked [?] have collection data included at mobot.org):

Mexico (Chiapas & Tabasco) [?], Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala [?], Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru & Venezuela.

Synonyms & distribution information was from MOBOT [http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html] (Includes numerous geo-coordinates of field collections)

P. marginata herbarium vouchers and collections can be found using the search engine at the NY Botanical Gardens:
http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp


Reported analysis:


Apparently no analysis has been reported.



Psychotria poeppigiana Muell. Arg.


This species has been reported with the common names: bimichëxë, boca pintada, chacruna, devil's ear, hot lips, labios de puta, oreja del diablo & picho e mula.

It is said to be a very potent admixture and is commercially available as an ornamental plant in some areas (such as south Florida).

Bioassays indicate a strong presence of DMT. Personal communications with an unnamed source who sampled it.

Its flowers are used by both the Créoles and Wayapi (French Guiana) for treating the pain of earache and also as a cough suppresant by the Palikur.


Synonyms:

Psychotria tomentosa (Aubl.) Müll. Arg.
Cephaelis barcellana (Muell. Arg.) Standl.
Cephaelis hirsuta M.Martens & Galeotti
Cephaelis tomentosa (Aubl.) Vahl
Cephaelis vultusmimi Dwyer
Tapogomea tomentosa Aubl.
Uragoga tomentosa (Aubl.) K.Schum.
Elisabetsky et al 1995


Occurrences:

Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname & Venezuela

This "weedy" & abundant [and highly ornamental] species is very widely distributed (It is known from Colombia to Guyana & Suriname in South America and from Belize & Costa Rica to Bolivia according to the Missouri Botanical Garden website.)

Synonyms & distribution information was from MOBOT [http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html] (Includes numerous geo-coordinates of field collections and images) and also http://www.mobot.org/MOB...rch/taylor/cephaeli.html

P. poeppigiana herbarium vouchers and collections can be found using the search engine at the NY Botanical Gardens:
http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp


Images:


See a photo of its showy flowers are at: http://www.mobot.org/MOB...rch/taylor/cephaeli.html




It appears to entirely lack published analysis.




Psychotria psychotriaefolia (Seem.) Standley


DMT was reported in the leaf along with two non-indolic alkaloids by Der Marderosian et al. 1969. However, this material was later determined to have actually been P. viridis which had been erroneously misidentified.


Psychotria stenostachya Standley


Common names "rumo sacha" & "yagé"

Reported by Duke as being incorporated in ayahuasca (people, activity, chemistry and a reference to a citation other than Duke were not included with the claim)


Distribution:


Occurrences has been reported from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Synonyms & distribution information was from MOBOT [http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html] (Includes numerous geo-coordinates of field collections)

P. stenostachya herbarium vouchers and collections can be found using the search engine at the NY Botanical Gardens: http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp


Reported analysis:

Apparently no analysis has been reported.


Psychotria viridis[/b] Ruíz & Pavón


Psychotria viridis has been reported with the common names: amiruca panga, amurucapanga (Ecuador), chacruna (Peru), kawa, kawa kui (a recognized variety), o-pri-to, rami appane, sami ruca, suija, tupamaqui, and yagé.The Matsigenka call it irorovampashi pijuri: ("Psychotria of the Bat"Pleased and yakomamamshi: (Anaconda leaf) according to Shepard 1998.

The Kofán of eastern Ecuador add its leaves and young shoots to yáje. This species is said to have a wide distribution from Central America to Bolivia. Described as a small tree or shrub which ccurs in lowlands that are flooded for part of the year or else in primary forests a short distance from streams or small rivers. (Pinkley 1969)

Psychotria viridis is considered to be dangerous and used only by witches according to the Peruvian Matsigenka. (Shepard 199Cool


Synonyms:


Palicourea viridis (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.
Uragoga viridis (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze


Distribution:


Psychotria viridis has been collected from: Cuba, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.

Synonyms & distribution information was from MOBOT [http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html] (Includes numerous geo-coordinates of field collections)

P. viridis herbarium vouchers and collections can be found using the search engine at the NY Botanical Gardens:
http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp

P. viridis photo, with flowers, can be found at:
http://www.nativehabitat.com/plants.html


Published analysis:


Most are fairly potent [reported values of 0.10-0.34% by dry wt.; i.e 100 to 340 mg of DMT per 100 grams of dry leaf.] but some entirely lack DMT. Some contain 2-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, some contain MMT. Individuals have been found with 1, 2 or all three.

Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pavon
DMT in leaf
Der Marderosian et al. 1970

Psychotria viridis R. and P. ["Rami appani"; Culina Indians, Zapote. Collected 22 July 1968.]
0.34% DMT in dry leaf [99% of 0.34% total alkaloid content by dry weight.]

Traces of MMT and 2-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline as minor alkaloids. [DMT was absent from another specimen of this species.]
Rivier & Lindgren 1972

DMT in leaf in "substantial amounts"

Co-occurring with traces of MMT and 2-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline.
Rivier & Lindgren 1972

Psychotria viridis [DMCK #21; Iquitos "Chacruna"]
0.16% DMT; 1.58 mg per gm dry weight (SD ± 0.3) in leaf. [Sole base.]
McKenna et al. 1984a

Psychotria viridis [DMCK #108; Tarapoto, "Suija"]
0.10% DMT; 1.02 mg per gm dry weight (SD ± 0.04) in leaf. [Sole base.]
McKenna et al. 1984a

Psychotria viridis [DMCK #139; Pucallpa, "Chacruna"]
0.12% DMT; 1.2 mg per gm dry weight (SD ± 0.17) in leaf. [Traces of 2-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline also present.]
McKenna et al. 1984a

Psychotria viridis (leaf):
0.19-0.35% total alkaloid

DMT was the major alkaloid; co-occurring with traces of MTHC and DMT-N-oxide; MMT could not be detected in any sample)
Pomilio et al. 1999

Psychotria viridis: (tentative ID by R.E. Schultes)

Known as chacruna by the Shibipo on the upper and middle Ucayali and town dewellers in Iquitos.

Analysis of the dried leaves showed the presence of 0.24% total crude bases, of which DMT was the major alkaloid. Percent isolated and the identity of other components were not determined.

Said to be distinguishable from the "false chacruna" based on its profile of unidentified minor bases but the details were not included.

Urzúa et al. 1972



[size=7]Other Psychotria species


Psychotria leiocarpa or P. carthagenensis are thought to be used but this has been suggested to be a misidentification of species by McKenna et al. 1998 This conclusion might be premature (or should at least wait until an analysis of P. leiocarpa is actually performed.) See also comments under P. alba & P. carthagenensis.

P. carthagenensis is said to produce less intense visuals than P. viridis whereas P. leiocarpa is said to be more similar to P. viridis in its effects.
- Pomilio et al. 1999 cited Aranha et al. 1991

Machiguenga utilize 10-15 species of Psychotria, including P. viridis, for various psychoactive purposes. Russo et al. 1996-1997

An unidentified Psychotria sp. they use as a DMT containing admixture is called Urubambashi.
- Russo et al. 1996-1997

They were introduced to this as an admixture in the 1960s by neighboring Matsigenka.
- Shepard 1998

Psychotria rubra is used in Oriental medicine but no analysis has been located.

Psychotria punctata is said by Native Habitat to be used by African healers.

Numerous other Psychotria species worldwide are used for medicine [1], considered toxic [2] and/or prized as ornamentals.

Not all contain alkaloids. For example:

Rivier & Lindgren reported the leaves of Psychotria bacteriophila Lausanne, Psychotria emetica Borneo-Paris and Psychotria undulata Borneo-Paris to have no detectable alkaloids.

Leal & Elisabetsky 1996b similarly could detect no alkaloid in P. carthaginensis, but interestingly they reported bioactivity.

Interestingly, Elisabetsky et al. 1995 determined a strong opioid analgesic activity in alkaloids present in both flowers and leaves of Psychotria colorata (Willd. ex R.& S.) Muell. Arg.

Flowers were found to be 4X stronger than leaves. This activity was reversed by administration of Naloxone.

Besides Elisabetsky et al. 1995, this species was also analyzed by Verotta et al. 1998 who similarly reported an analgesic activity for the flowers. This species is traditionally used as a treatment for both earache and for abdominal pain. Its common name is Perpétua do mato)

Leal & Elizabetsky 1996a reported the same activity for Psychotria brachypoda (Muell. Arg.) Britton. Both of these species are used as painkillers in ethnomedicine.

Psychotria griffithii is also employed for pain (in Malaya)


Psychotria species "nai kawa" (Cashinahua)

DMT isolated from authenticated material.
- Der Marderosian et al. 1969

0.16-0.22% in leaf
- Der Marderosian et al. 1970


Psychotria species: (probable ID by R.E. Schultes)

Known as "falsa chacruna" (false chacruna) by the Shibipo on the upper and middle Ucayali and town dewellers in Iquitos.

Analysis of the dried leaves showed the presence of 0.8% total crude bases, of which DMT was the major alkaloid. Percentage of DMT and the identity of other components were not determined.

Said to be distinguishable from chacruna based on its profile of unidentified minor bases not present in chacruna but the details were not included.
- Urzúa et al. 1972

It might be noted that falsa chacruna is frequently used to refer to Psychotria species lacking espinas on the underside of their leaves. These are said to be unsuitable for use as an ayahuasca admixture and chemical analysis by McKenna appeared to support this. [See McKenna et al. 1984a]

In light of the work of Urzua and the conflicting reports indicating both the presence and absence of DMT in P. carthagenensis, this is apparently an area in great need of further work.

While it may indeed prove that mistaken identities have played a role in the confusion this cannot be automatically assumed to be the case without further study as many of the conflicting accounts have involved material identified & properly vouchered by professional botanists.


Notes #

A partial listing:

Colombia: Psychotria pinularis

Fiji: Psychotria archboldiana, Psychotria macrocalyx and Psychotria tephrosantha

French Guiana: Psychotria platypoda & Psychotria ulviformis

Indonesia: Psychotria viridiflora and an indeterminate Psychotria species known as "kaju badja."

Philippine Islands: Psychotria cuernosensis, Psychotria luzoniensis, Psychotria manillensis, Psychotria merrittii, Psychotria membranifolia and the indeterminate species known by the common names of "Penubulen Jayn", "Tangkuluran" and "Tubalan-ulangan" respectively.

Polynesia: Psychotria insularum

Sierra Leon: Psychotria rufipilis

Solomon Islands: Psychotria olivacea, Psychotria schmielei and an indeterminate species.

Also a species known in Hawaii as "kopiko"

Additionally, the fruit of Psychotria elmeri is eaten in northern Borneo.

References: von Reis Altschul 1975, Ott 1996 & Elisabetsky et al. 1995. The Machiguenga apply the leaf juice of a Psychotria sp. they call "Sampakatishi" to their eyes to sharpen senses or relieve headache. Russo et al. 1996-1997

Psychotria alboviridula is used to treat fire ant bites by the Tikuna according to Schultes & Raffauf 1990

The Brazilian species, Psychotria barbiflora and Psychotria pinularis are both known as "Herva de Rato"; a name commonly applied to plants used as rat poisons. Both species are considered to be poisonous; the latter is said to kill cattle if it is eaten and water taken.

von Reis Altschul 1975.
The fruits of Psychotria carthaginensis Jaquin, Psychotria involucrata Swartz. and Psychotria nudiceps are considered toxic (in Colombia and/or neighboring regions) Schultes 1969a.

Polyindolines have been reported from Psychotria beccaroides, Psychotria forsteriana and Psychotria oleoides.

Alkaloids have also been reported from Psychotria expansa, Psychotria hirta, and Psychotria rostrata. Ott 1996.

An unidentified physiologically active substance, decreasing spontaneous locomotion, and believed to be nonalkaloidal, was observed in the leaves of P. carthaginensis by Leal & Elisabetsky 1996b

Emetine (fatal at the 1 gram level in humans & cumulatively toxic) or similar compounds have been reported from Psychotria beccaroides, Psychotria emetica, Psychotria forsteriana, Psychotria granadensis & Psychotria oleoides.
 
pinkoyd
#12 Posted : 12/31/2012 2:50:57 AM

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Intrigued by several references to the purported activity of P. poeppigiana (including Ratsch's Encyclopedia and the above citation from Trout), I began investigating and came up with the following which I posted at the Nook and will repeat here for ease of access:

I recently had some success tracking this one down [P.poeppigiana] and now that I'm thinking I might be able to get some going (more on that later...) thought this was a good time to share my journey so far with this plant. I've shared this with some here privately, so excuse me for repeating myself...

...of the jungle listed it in their catalog back in the mid '90s for I think just one year, with a minimal description, but enough to hint at some interesting activity. Duly ordered seed, but they were a no-go.

I recently re-contacted the guy who ran otj who gave me the low down of how he came to discover it's activity:

"I do recall a Psychotria species locally called 'lucero sanango' which may be P.alba. It was said to be quite potent but i never tried it. On one occasion Jonathan Ott and I went down and hooked up with a really solid old ayahuascero. I spotted P.poeppigiana nearby growing in huge wild weedy patches. I asked him if they use it as a chacruna substitute (P.v. being in short supply back then) but he said it is not a chacruna and isn't related in any way, although they use the 'dew' inside the showy bloom to drop into aching ears. That use is reported from many completely distinct and widely separated cultures, so maybe it works for that. I explained that our 'science' tells us by taxonomy that they are related although they don't resemble each other, and that our chemistry can tell us if they have the same 'spirit' compound, which actually had never yet been known. i asked him if he was interested in testing it by making an ayahuasca brew with just the vine and the P.poeppigiana "Oreja del Diablo" leaves. He was into the experiment but insisted it woudn't work. He took over the brewing, using 40 leaves per person at my suggestion. So, it was ready a dusk and we drank it and lay in the hammocks under the thatched roof forest hut, waiting. Sometime during the onset he exclaimed his amazement and praised out 'science' repeatedly! It tured out to be a lot more potent than P.v. or any admixture they know of. Finally we were able to reciprocate by teaching them something they had never discovered, istead of just going there to learn what they know. Plus we added a very useful plant into their shamanic repertoire. And, given the relative short supply of P.v. and this P.poeppigiana literally was growing all over the place in abundance, it solved a really practical situation for them. No doubt one day there will be a myth about these two aliens who visited the tribe to teach the people of this sacrament! Ethnobotany at its best, no?"

"...That one really deserves to be introduced into horticulture. When I first spotted the wild patch in a swampy forest opening I waded in and bent over to literally kiss those big Rolling Stones-ish kissing lip corolla on one, actually kinda making out with her, licking the inner juices. Very erotic in a trans-species botanical way. I'm blushing just remembering the encounter and her seducing me.
P.poeppigiana has a very wide geographic range, central america through amazonia. It's gotta be easy to get. Somebody should get on it and spread that beauty around the nursery world. hell, she makes Anthuriums look like hags."


He later told me that no chemical anaylsis had been done (and to this day none has been published that I know of.) He just had a hunch that it would work. Amazing, crazy-nut plant guy!

This account of the discovery of it's activity is the only first person account of it's usage that exists to my knowledge, and is likely from the person that Trout and Ratsch reference. It later occured to me that had the species been allied with say, Psychotria ipecacuanha, the source of syrup of ipecac, things might have turned out very differently...

The original posting is here, along with details of my quest to get this plant into cultivation:

http://www.thenook.org/f...showtopic=72418&st=0
I already asked Alice.

 
rahlii
#13 Posted : 3/4/2014 9:30:16 PM

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I'm pretty certain I have Psychotria horizontalis in my garden, seed sourced from Kiwi. Check this thread - https://www.dmt-nexus.me...aspx?g=posts&t=53609

Thanks for the info endlessness.

It would be good to get some lab analysis done on this species as it is incorporated into Ayahuasca brews but the alkaloids are unknown.

endlessness wrote:
All of below copied from Trout's Notes on ayahuasca.
[size=7]
[u][size=7]Psychotria horizontalis
[size] Swartz


Common name: "tupamaqui"

Reported by Duke as being incorporated in ayahuasca (people, activity, chemistry and a reference to a citation other than Duke were not included with the claim)

Synonyms:


Myrstiphyllum horizontalis (Sw.) Millsp.
Uragoga horizontalis (Sw.) Kuntze


Reported occurrences:

Psychotria horizontalis has been reported from: Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit), Cuba, Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela.

Synonyms & distribution information was from MOBOT [http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html] (Includes numerous geo-coordinates of field collections)

P. horizontalis herbarium vouchers and collections can be found using the search engine at the NY Botanical Gardens:
http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp


Images:

Fruiting plant of horizontalis


Fruit close-up


Leaf of same:


[b]
Reported analysis:


Apparently no analysis has been reported.


I have also started a thread on Psychotria 'Nexus' a hybrid between P. viridis and P. carthagensis, here - https://www.dmt-nexus.me...aspx?g=posts&t=52625


From where is the noise?
 
rahlii
#14 Posted : 3/5/2014 6:19:13 AM

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Find attached a paper on the alkaloid content within a range of South American Psychotria spp.
From where is the noise?
 
endlessness
#15 Posted : 9/30/2014 10:16:57 PM

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Psychotria mapourioides DC.




Named Hua~ Karu in Kaxinawa language, meaning 'enchanted being'

It is a tree that reaches 15m. It occurs in Brazil, Venezuela, Guiana, Suriname, French Guiana and Ecuador. In Brazil it occurs in the Amazon, and the Cerrado, in the states of Para, Amazonas, Acre and Sao Paulo.

It is also known as apuruí.

Traditional uses:
Kaxinawa use: Mouth wash with the brew is used for inflamation in the gums and tooth pain caused by eating too much piaba (Yapa Sheta) (Ika Muru, 2014)

Other uses: In the Carribean, it is used in fitotherapeutic formulations for the treatment of faringitis. In French Guiana, the brew is used for eye diseases. (Ika Muru, 2014)


Psychotria racemosa Rich.





Named Ipu Batxi in Kaxinawa language, meaning 'Spines of the Bodó fish'

It is a 2m shrub. Oval shapped leaves with oposite disposition one from the other. White-greenish flowers and meaty fruits, green to orange to black when mature, with only one seed.

It occurs in Brazil, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana, Suriname, French Guiana, Equador, Peru and Bolivia. In Brazil it occurs in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, in the states of Para, Amazonas, Acre, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo.

Traditional uses:
Kaxinawa use: Bathe in the brew for "Nisu~" (unknown translation) (Ika Muru, 2014)


Psychotria lupulina Benth.





Named Shakudunu Matsi in Kaxinawa language, meaning 'Cold Blind-Snake'

It is a 3m shrub. Spear shapped leaves with long tip, with oposite disposition one from the other. White flowers and meaty fruits, green, with only one seed.

It occurs in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana, Suriname, French Guiana, Equador, Peru and Bolivia. In Brazil it occurs in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, in the states of Para, Amazonas, Acre, Bahia, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo and Sao Paulo.

Traditional uses:
Kaxinawa use: Topical application for when the foot gets hurt and black, disease called by the `blind-snake' (Shaku Dunuaka Musakiti), as well as for face pimples caused by eating too much fish eggs (Besuki Batxi Txakawa Hawe Bemusukuti) (Ika Muru, 2014)




Sources: Ika Muru, Agostinho Manduca Mateus (2014). Una Isi Kayawa: Livro da cura do povo Huni Kuin do Rio Jordao. Dantes Ed., 2014


 
Nutella
#16 Posted : 12/26/2014 4:04:10 AM
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It is a pity Psychotria species outside the americas seem to have not been investigated yet.
Looks like i got Psychotria rubra (P. asiatica) around here, and probably more varieties as well.
All i could find about this sub species is a recorded case of toxic neuropathy i am not sure how to interpret. In that case pieces of roots were used rather than leaves. See the pdf attached.
Also interesting is the seperate admistration of a broth from Ficus hirta, a tropical fig, and i remember reading about Ficus spp as ayahuasca additives or containing harmaline.
I do have Ficus hirta and a few others around as well ...

Contacting the unversity of Hong Kong to propose further analysis might be easier than setting up a private chem lab from scratch ... hmmm. Bioassay with traditional medical plants is always another option. Oww what to dooooo xD
 
SofaSwim
#17 Posted : 4/12/2019 2:29:31 AM

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Source
Schultes, Richard Evans., and Albert Hofmann. The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens. Thomas, 1980.

Quote:

Psychotria Linnaeus

Psychotria belongs to the Rubioïdea and comprises more than 700 species, mostly small trees in the warmer parts of both hemispheres.

Since the Rubiaceae represents a very large family and one that is rich in alkaloids, it is curious that only the genus Psychotria has been employed for hallucinogenic purposes. Furthermore, this use has been discovered only recently. It is even more interesting that Psychotria appears to be utilized only as an admixture with other hallucinogenic plants.

In several far-separated Amazonian localities, leaves of the Psychotria are, on certain occasions, added to the psychotomimetric beverage made from Banisteriopsis caapi to B. inebrians. The Kofán Indians of Amazonian Colombia and Ecuador add the leaves of P. viridis to lengthen and strengthen the visions induced. The Kashinahua of eastern Peru and western Brazil employ the leaves of two different species of Psychotria, known by the native terms nai-kawa and matsi-kawa. The identity of these two species is uncertain, because only sterile material could be collected; but the nai-kawa has been referred to one of the following species, P.horizontalis, P. cartharginesis, P. marginata, or P.alba, all of which grow abundantly in the region. Natives at Tarauacá in the Acre of Brazil, where both the use of hallucinogenic ayahuasca is employed by both Indians and Brazilians and where it is renowned for it’s potency, prepare the drink from Banisteriopsis with leaves of P.viridis added (Der Marderosian, 1967a, 1970a).

The chemical composition of the Psychotria leaves explains why this plant is utilized as an additive and not as the sole base of a drink. They contain N,N-dimethyltryptamine (Der Marderosian et al., 1970), which is inactive when taken orally without a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. When the leaves are mixed with material from Banisteriopsis that contains β-carboline alkaloids, which are monoamine oxidase inhibitors, the tryptamine is effective in an orally administered form and in reality does materially alter the intoxication (Der Marderosian et al., 1970).

Psychotria Viridis


Shrub or small tree, up to 14 feet in height, glabrous throughout. Stipules large, acuminate, thin, brownish, caduceus. Leaves short-petiolate, obovate or obovate-oblong, acute or short-acuminate, basally long cuneate, 8-15cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide. Inflorescence terminal, pedunculate, spicate-paniculate, shorter than leaves, up to 10cm long, lower branches more or less verticillate. Flowers sessile in distant glomerules, very small, usually up to 4mm long; corolla greenish white, not basally gibbous. Fruit small, drupaceous.

Ranging in forests throughout the Amazon basin north to Central America and Cuba.



 
Muskogee Herbman
#18 Posted : 4/12/2019 4:44:02 AM

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Any chance I can get an ID on this? I Think its a Psychotria Colorata but the leafs are wrong, flower is right.

First photo is mine, rest are found online as "P. Colorata"
Muskogee Herbman attached the following image(s):
20190330_180322.jpg (4,185kb) downloaded 73 time(s).
psychotriacoloratabahiabrazil.jpg (208kb) downloaded 60 time(s).
Psychotria_colorata.jpg (274kb) downloaded 59 time(s).
Fig-2-Alkaloids-isolated-from-Psychotria-colorata-The-upper-and-lower-structures-are.jpg (83kb) downloaded 57 time(s).
12413175243_7dc6010cc0.jpg (62kb) downloaded 55 time(s).
Creator help me live in a way that will make my ancestors proud.
 
Muskogee Herbman
#19 Posted : 4/18/2019 4:26:32 AM

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Psychotria Colorata?
Pictures from a friend in Africa growing it.

Pressed samples seem more like my plant.
http://sweetgum.nybg.org..._details.php?irn=1228204
https://learninglab.si.edu/resources/view/2519859
http://sweetgum.nybg.org..._details.php?irn=1228196
http://sweetgum.nybg.org..._details.php?irn=1228201
Muskogee Herbman attached the following image(s):
57034764_2296906950552901_4511324843311890432_n.jpg (358kb) downloaded 61 time(s).
49097838_212599106312906_4284677430532112384_n.jpg (419kb) downloaded 61 time(s).
57485170_1020836391454898_5208716670486446080_n.jpg (537kb) downloaded 60 time(s).
57088199_612682102580593_4505356492332859392_n.jpg (91kb) downloaded 60 time(s).
57462807_420840008731597_387765641941090304_n.jpg (305kb) downloaded 59 time(s).
57882410_350355015596410_6205788943091236864_n.jpg (165kb) downloaded 59 time(s).
Creator help me live in a way that will make my ancestors proud.
 
padawan
#20 Posted : 4/18/2019 4:46:05 AM

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Your first photo (previous post) looks just like my P.Colorata, but mine hasn't flowered yet so can't positively ID on that basis.
 
 
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